1. Explain the history of structured English immersion in Arizona. Lau vs. Nicols 1974 decided that non-English speaking children thrown into English classes and told to “sink or swim” violated their civil rights. Under the Supreme Court decision, schools were required to provide material and teaching necessary to help ELL students with the language. No more language based discrimination. Flores vs. Arizona 1992 argued that Arizona was not paying enough funds and adequate programs to ELL students. Said ADE was not following 1974 decision. Proposition 203 of 2000 deterred bilingual education, and demanded ELL students have decent English proficiency after a year of SEI instruction. This blocked students from learning in two languages and forces them to learn English at a set rate. 2. Identify historical developments that affected bilingual education, English as a Second Language, and Structured English Immersion.
3. Evaluate the Lau v. Nichols decision and determine how it affects Arizona's teachers. Arizona was required to fund and supply ELL programs. However, Flores vs. Arizona proved that Arizona was not meeting that standard. Assignment 2
1. 1. Briefly describe several models of ELL instruction. Sink or Swim – students are placed in all-English environment with no help in native language. They either succeed or fail, according to their own abilities. Bilingual Transitional Ed – students work in both languages while building up English skills for 2 or 3 years. Early exit, less effective Bilingual Developmental Ed – ELL and native students study in both languages. They ESL pullout – takes ELL students out of class for periods of time to work on English SEI – with native speakers, teachers provide structure while teaching academics and English. Sheltered is just ELL students. 2. What are the philosophical viewpoints of ESL vs. BLE vs. SEI programming? ESL – secure environment to practice. Stress immersion, want fast mainstreaming. SEI – Inclusion model with natives, integrates language and content while infusing socio-cultural awareness. BLE – Develop dual literacy. The goal is to keep students on grade level material and slowly transition them until they are ready to perform in an "English-only" classroom. Illegal in AZ, WTF?!? 3. What are the key components of enrichment and remediation programming goals? Enrichment - allows ELL students to be respected for their linguistic and cultural contributions to the classroom. Remediation – there is a “problem” that needs to be fixed. Alienates ELL student, less regular education. 4. Describe benefits of "pull-out" and inclusion models. Pull-out – Students get to practice in secure environment. But must leave class to go pullout, missing material. Inclusion – students remain in class with structure that allows them to learn content while learning language. Sheltered immersion… Assignment 3
1. What are each of the stages of language acquisition? Explain. Silent – pointing, gesturing, nodding. Teachers should give listening opportunities and use physical movements. Early Production – short phrases, y/n, who/what/where. Tecahers should have students label, manipulate and evaluate pics and objects. Speech Emergence – Simple sentences, grammatical error, big ideas. Teachers should ask open-ended questions. Intermediate Proficiency – opinions, complex statements. Teachers should have group discussions, writing and reading assignments. 2. What is the silent period?
Before a students can speak, communicates with gestures.
3. Describe the concept of comprehensible input.
Krashen’s hypothesis that says students intake and understand language that is just beyond their current level of competence. Teacher must know where their students are at and just push them to the next step, but not overwhelm. 4. Who are Steven Krashen and Jim Cummins? Describe their contributions. Krashen developed the idea of...