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Chapter 2REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE & STUDIES
According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008),they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours outof class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must havea special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should notbe cramped. They presupposes that study time will go better if a learner takea few minutes at the start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backedchair is usually best. “ Don't get too comfortable--a bed is a place to sleep, notto study” as what they said. A student must have everything close at hand(book, pencils, paper, coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape recorder,etc.) before starting to study. Students are not suggested to spend on time jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also that distractingnoise should be minimized however they said that there are some peopleneed sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must finds whatworks for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. consider a "do notdisturb" sign and turning on your answering machine is the way also to havebetter study habits according to the PBBC..Frank Pogue(2000) did a research project to determine whystudents fail. What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was thatmore than 30 years ago still rings true today--students fail because they donot know how to study .The best advice he can give is to develop sound studyskillsHe said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good studyenvironment, a good desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable roomtemperature and a quiet atmosphere. That means he/she should eliminate allexternal and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview of theassignment before starting the work. Know what skills, facts and ideas thatare expected to master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start withmost difficult subject first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive.Professors in the developing countries said that theundergraduate students should be fully equip with high level of analyticalskills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual graspand ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind (Simmons2003). Study habits are said to be improving because of the advent and wideuse of the Internet, hypertext, and multimedia resources which greatly affectsthe Study Habits (Liu, 2005). Karim and Hassan (2006) also note theexponential growth digital information, which changes the way studentsperceive studying and with printed materials that are to be use in facilitatingstudy. Liu (2005) and Ramirez (2003) report that students print material fromthe Internet in order to study and read later on. Igun (2005) also found thatNigerians study from materials downloaded from the Internet.Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author andknow what the author is conveying (Leedy 1956). Studying is theinterpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularlyimportant for college students, whose needs include time management, notetaking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a highpriority to studyFielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in criticalreflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, andsynthesizing. Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendenciesthat enable students work private.The study conducted by Hope L. Graven (2008) on the relationshipbetween an individual's amount of caffeine consumption during his/her studysession and the individual's study habits showed that the main effect of drinking caffeine on exam preparation was not significant There wereparticipants, 20 male and 58 female college students (N=78), answered self-ratings on their personal consumption of caffeine as well as their study habitswhen preparing for a test/exam. It was hypothesized that the more...
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