Contemporary Issues in Education

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Course: Contemporary Issues in Education
Recommended website http://philo-sophia.webnode.com
Social Stratification
Lucy and Arda – Homopithesus Afarensis
* Lucy was 2.2 million years old
* Arda was 4.2 million years old
* Other facts that were established about both were:
* Both were the oldest known hominids
* Both were female and
* Both were smaller than the males of their species
Why were Lucy and Arda smaller than her male companions?
* It is all about differentiations
* Nature loves differentiations
Social stratification is Hierarchy arrangement of human groups in a social community. Examples
1. Warriors and their settlers
2. Slaves and masters
3. Upper class and lower class
4. nobility and peasants
5. upper, middle and working classes
6. priests and worshippers
The main operative concepts that underpin our understanding of social stratification today are: 1. Power and domination
2. Class and resources
Karl Marx and Social Stratification
* Karl Marx proposed the first universal and comprehensive theory to explain social stratification * He saw human history in terms of a permanent struggle between the oppressors and the oppressed * Both sides struggle over the ownership of the means of production land, labour and capital * They struggle will end when society itself owns the means of production

Major Theorists
1. Vilfredo Pareto
2. Gaetano Mosca
3. C Wright-Mills
Social stratification Circa 1970’s – 1980’s
1. Bowles and Gintis
2. Basil Bernstein
3. Michael Young
4. Paulo Freire
5. Ivan Illich
Contra Social stratification
* Democracy
* Political freedom
* Meritocracy
* Rule of law
* Freedoms/human rights
* Social welfare
* Free education
Basil Bernstein – Class, codes and linguistics
He was one of the first people to point out that students fail because we speak middle class English and they are not from the...
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