Computer Organization

Topics: Central processing unit, Computer, CPU cache Pages: 15 (2687 words) Published: October 6, 2013
COURSE OUTLINE

Computer Organization
_______________________________________________________________

Objectives:
To introduce the following subjects:
Organization of digital computers
Different components
Basic principles and operations.

Textbook:
Stallings W., Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance, (9-th Edition) Prentice Hall, 2012.

References:
Stallings W., Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance, (6-th Edition) Prentice Hall, 2003 Stallings W., Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance, (5-th Edition) Prentice Hall, 2000. Mano M. M., Computer System Architec-ture (3-rd Edition), Prentice Hall, 1993. Stallings W., Computer Organization and Architecture: Principles of Structure and Function, 3-rd Edition) Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993. Wear L.L., Computer: An Introduction to Hardware and Software Design, McGraw Hill International Edition, 1991.

Subject Contents in Outline:

Data Representation and Manipulation
Digital Component
Register Transfer and Microoperations
Basic Computer Organization
Overview of programming
Central Processing Unit
Input/Output Organization
Memory Organization
New development

Suggested Reading Assignments:
Stallings William, Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance, (9th Edition) Prentice Hall, 2012.

Part II The Computer Systems
Chapter 3 A Top-Level View of Computer Function and Interconnection (Pages 87- 115) (main)
(Pages 116 – 129) (optional)

Part IV The Central Processing Unit
Chapter 14 Processor Structure and Function
(Pages 505 – 548) (optional)

Part VI The Control Unit
Chapter 19 Control Unit Operation
(Online resources, 9th Edition) (optional)
or
(Pages 579 – 602, 8th Edition) (optional)

System Components
Computer Function
Micro-operations
Register Organization
Interconnection Structures
Bus Interconnection
1. SYSTEM COMPONENTS

FCentral Processing Unit (CPU)

vThe most basic tasks handled by the CPU

¨Find and load the next instruction

¨Execute the instruction:

¨Fetch data from memory / registers
¨Store data in memory / registers
¨Perform calculations and comparisons
¨Modify the instruction pointer (branching)

if A > B
then Y:= A-B
else Y:= A+B

vThe CPU is divided into three parts:

¨The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
¨Carries out arithmetic, logical, and shifting operations

¨The Control Unit (CU)
¨Fetches data and instructions and decodes addresses for the ALU. ¨Registers

vRegisters

lRegisters are special work areas inside the CPU.

lThey are designed to be accessed at high speed.

lProvide storage internal to the CPU.

¨The Intel instruction set requires the use of at least one register for nearly all instructions.

lMajor registers:

MAR, MBR, I/OAR, I/OBR

1.MAR - memory address register

lspecifies the address in memory for the next read or write.

2.MBR - memory buffer register

lcontains the data to be written into memory or receives the data from mem­ory.

3.I/OAR - I/O address register

lspecifies a particular I/O device.

4.I/OBR - I/O buffer register

lis used for the exchange of data between an I/O module and the CPU.

vCPU Interconnection

lSome mechanism that provides for com­munication among the control unit, ALU, and registers.

F Memory

lConsists of a set of locations defined by sequentially numbered addresses.

lEach location contains a binary number that can be interpreted as either lan instruction, or
ldata.

FI/O

ltransfers data from external devices to CPU and memory, and vice versa

lContains internal buffers for temporarily...
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