Computer Hardware

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Grace Loraine M. Borres
BSCOE II-3

Assignment No. 1

An internal bus serves as the communication highway of the motherboard. It links the different parts of the computer to the CPU and the main memory. Its primary task is to send data and instructions to the different parts within the motherboard, including the external bus. The external type of motherboard bus, which is also known as the expansion bus, serves as the interface for peripheral devices like hard disks, CD-ROM drives, and flash drives to get connected to the CPU. The shape of each interface is unique. This prevents plugging a device to a wrong port, which could cause damage to the device while being connected to the CPU.

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CPU- Central Processing Unit
It is also known as the microprocessor or the processor. It is the brain of the computer, and it is responsible for fetching,decoding and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations. The processor chip is identified by the processor type and the manufacturer; and this information is usually inscribed on the processor chip e.g. Intel 386, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) 386, Cyrix 486, Pentium MMX, (old processor types) Intel Core 2Duo, iCore7 and many more. If the processor chip is not on the motherboard, you can identify the processor socket as socket 1 to Socket 8, LGA 775 among others. This can help you identify the processor that fits in the socket. For example a 486DX processor fits into Socket 3. Main Memory / Random Access Memory (RAM)

Random Access Memory or RAMmost commonly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data when you are working with your computer to enhance the computer performance. Random access memory is volatile memory, meaning it loses its contents once power is turned off. This is different from non-volatile memory such as hard disks and flash memory, which do not require a power source to retain data. BIOS- Basic Input Output System

BIOS is a term that stands for Basic Input/Output System. BIOS is a Read Only Memory which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware. Most people know the term BIOS by another name—device drivers, or just drivers. BIOS is essentially the link between the computer hardware and software in a system. All motherboards include a small block of Read Only Memory (ROM) which is separate from the main system memory used for loading and running software. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions. The system BIOS is a ROM chip on the motherboard used by the computer during the startup routine (boot process) to check out the system and prepare to run the hardware. The BIOS is stored on a ROM chip because ROM retains information even when no power is being supplied to the computer.

CMOS RAM - Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Random Access Memory Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by a battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PC’s power is off. This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on. CMOS devices require very little power to operate.

L2 Cache on an old Motherboard [ 1 ]
Cache Memory
Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data), it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data from larger memory. Cache memory is sometimes described in levels of closeness and accessibility to the microprocessor. An L1 cache is on the same chip as the microprocessor. (For example, thePowerPC 601 processor has a 32 kilobyte level-1 cache built into its chip.) L2 is...
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