1) History of cognitive psychology:
- 4 early psychologists influenced the study of cognitive psychology: 1) Wilhelm Wundt; 2) Edward Titchner; 3) Hermann von Ebbinghaus; 3) William James -Wilhelm Wundt: Book of “ Principles of physiological Psychology”. -He founded the first psychology journal (Philosophical Studies) -He was credit for starting the only true scientific revolution in psychology -He believed the proper topic of psychology was “ conscious processes and immediate experience” -In addition to use of response time measures, he devised the method of “Selbsbeobachtung” =” Self-Observation: which is listed as “INTROSPECTION” -Introspection: A method in which one looks carefully inward, reporting inner sensations and experiences. (He had rules for the use of introspection: `Observer had to be “master of the situation, in a state of “strained attention”. ` Observations were repeated many times ` Reports in which memory intruded Wundt’s term was mediate or mediated experience – were to be excluded
-Edward Titchner: He insisted on careful control and rigorous training to avoid” STIMILUS ERROR” of describing physical stimulus rather than mental experience. -He studies” STRUCTURALISM”: the structure of the conscious mind, the sensations, images, and feelings that were the very elements of the mind’s structure. ( Structuralism was the first major movement or school psychological thought.
-Hermann von Ebbenghaus: -He studied Forgetting and memory using thoroughly objective methods. – He was the 1st to invent reasonably scientific , enduring method to study memory and mental processes. - He used himself as subject for his own research.
-As a method to his studies he developed stimulus lists of “NON-SENSE SYLLABLES” ,”Consonant –vowel-consonant (CVC) – Which had NO- MEANING. -He would learn the lists – then at a later time he would re-learn them and note down how many trials it takes him to relearn the same lists. - His measure of learning was “ saving the scores” of trials that had been save d in memory between the 1st and the 2nd time. - Ebbinghaus examined forgetting as a function of time that intervened between the 2 learning sessions – and the effect of nonsense(lists) vs meaningful material (poetry).
- William James: -He was influenced by Darwin.
- FUNCTUONALISM: the functions of consciousness, rather than its structure. (He asked how does the mind function, how does it adapt ?) -He proposed that memory consists of 2 parts: 1) immediately available memory that we are aware of; 2) larger memory that is hidden or passive , repository for past experience. - He introduced a book in 1890 : “ Principles of psychology.
-Some changes in behaviorism smoothed the transition to cognitive psychology which lahey called” mediated neobehaviorism”. - John B. Watson: Early behaviorist who believed that any infant could be trained to become a type of specialist . he was such an extremist on nature vs nurture. - BEHAVIORISM: the scientific study of observable behavior. ( left no room for hidden mental processes, rejected introspection and focused on observable behaviors) He described as “ANTIMENTALIST” - Little Albert’ experiment.
- He developed the notion of implicit behavior. -BF Skinner: - Book” The behavior of organisms”:
- He also was behaviorist – who argued that mental events such as thinking do not have a place in the science of psychology.
Behaviorism was rejected after its progression stopped and it was replaced with cognitive psychology...