Effects of Globalization
* Hoffman points out that globalization is occurring in a world still divided by great power antagonisms, such as nationalism, cultural diversity, increasing economic inequality, etc. * 3 effects of globalization on international politics
* 1. Institutions (NGOs) favoring a 'global society' seek to reduce the destructive effects of national regulations on the forces of integration * In other words, these institutions try to ensure fairness in the world market and promote justice, equality, fair trade, etc. among nations * Conflict because states will not accept regulations that will constrain the global market or further reduce their sovereignty * Example: Bleak tradeoff between economic development/competitiveness and the preservation of social safety nets * Global institutions are fragmented and have limited power * As a result, the movement toward a world/universal state is unlikely * 2. Globalization has not really changed anyone's perception of national identity * Hoffman argues that no central power in the world can create a national identity for themselves, as there is a lot of resistance to cultural homogenization * Example: European Union does not have a national collective identity yet despite dilution of borders and shared currency. * 3. Globalization still promotes violence—it breeds resentment and emphasizes differences and inequality among nations, which leads to the spread of terrorism. * Globalization and Terrorism: globalization is “far from spreading peace” and terrorism can be seen as a by-product of this master trend * Terrorist organizations form due to globalization
* Clash of cultures They are created as a result of common resentments, ethnic origin, or religious faith. * Example: Islamic terrorism fueled by resistance to Western culture (deemed threatening to...