CHFD215: Child Development
Instructions: Below you will find two questions for each of the eight Berk text chapters we have covered so far. One type of question requires you to connect with course content and the other requires you to apply it. Thoroughly and succinctly answer one question for each chapter (e.g. 1a or 1b but not both, 2a or 2b but not both). Your answers should be written in complete sentences and should demonstrate understanding of the material. This exam assesses your learning and comprehension, so show off your scholarship. Answers should be stated in your own words. Copy/pasted quotes and statements lifted directly from the textbook will not be accepted. You may either save this document on your computer and insert your answers into it or copy/paste your chosen questions into a new document and answer them. Be sure to proofread your work. One half of one percentage point will be deducted for each grammar and spelling error.
1a Application: A 4-year-old becomes frightened of the dark and refuses to go to sleep at night. How would a psychoanalyst and a behaviorist differ in their views of how this problem developed and what should be done about it. NOTE: Do more than summarize the concepts of the two approaches, here—you must explain concretely how each would explain the problem of fear of the dark and how the perspectives would differ.
A psychoanalyst believes that fears are from experienced events or the fear is a symbol of something that happened in the past. So if a child was afraid of the dark maybe the child was left at a young age and is afraid of being alone.
A behaviorist believes that a child acts a certain way due to a response that has been rewarded. In other words if the child acts scared of the dark, he or she is expecting to be able to have a light on or be comforted by the adult. That is what happened the previous time.
2a Connection: Read the description of the study investigating antisocial boys and their friendships on page 44 of your text. The data collection method was structured observation. What type of research design did the researchers use, and why?
The best research design for this type of information to be collected would be correlation design. This tested would be done with children living their normal day to day life with nothing altered to get the most accurate result.
3a Application: Nora, pregnant for the first time, has heard about the teratogenic impact of alcohol and tobacco. Nevertheless, she believes that a few cigarettes and a glass of wine a day won't be harmful. Provide Nora with research-based reasons for not smoking or drinking.
Nora it is a proven fact that alcohol and tobacco use is very harmful to a baby during the pregnancy as well as after. The American Cancer Society stated that if a if the mother did not smoke five percent of the infant deaths would not have occurred. If the mother smokes while being pregnant she has a higher chance of delivering early. Premature babies have a higher chance of not making it. Children of smokers have high rates of heart defects. They are also three to four chances of being affected by sudden infant death syndrome, also known as SIDS. Smoking during pregnancy effects the growth of the fetus which turns the child into having a low birth weight. Even after the baby is born and the mother continues to smoke, the nicotine can be passed through the breast milk of a breastfeeding mother. (American Cancer Society)
Mothers who abuse alcohol during pregnancy are also harmful to their unborn child. Drinking while pregnant may cause a still birth, a miscarriage or may even preterm labor. The alcohol in the mothers blood runs right through the childs blood. A babies liver is much too tiny to work that hard and may cause long term health issues if it does survive the birth. The baby may have sight and...
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