Planktons: groups of tiny floating organisms that cannot swim against the current. *Taxonomy: size, function, autotrophs-producers, heterotrophs-consumers/decomposers, mixotrophs, complex, symbiotic/parasitic *Small to big: femtoplankton (viruses), pico (bacteria), nano (diatoms, dinoflagellates), micro(sameasnano+protozoa), meso(mostly zooplankton), macroplankton *Grazing food chain: Phyto->zooplk->fish
*Sinking flux: dead fall to deeper ocean POM: Particulate organic material
DOM: dissolved organic material
*Microbial Loop: see picture 1 Collection methods of plankton: Epi-fluorescence microscope, flow cytometer, scuba, submarine, bioacoustics methods Phytoplankton: red tide=dinoflagellate bloom
ONLY Trichodesmium can fix N_2
Radiolaria-amoeboid protozoans (omnivores) Ciliates- use cilia for locomotion heteropods-mollusca more examples Meroplankton: Holo=planktonic whole lives Mero=Juvinile is planktonic Larvae: veliger-larvae of benthic snails and clams; veler: ciliated membrane Nauplius from barnacles: six stages planktonic forms; then succeed to Sypris stage which settle down and metamorphose; then adult stage Ichthyoplankton- collective term for fish eggs and larvae Spawning and hatching usually are tied to temperature and food (phytoplankton) cycles Biological Pump: CO_2 sinks to bottom of the ocean to get pereserved there Major species of algal bloom: diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, etc.
blooms are unsteady phenomenon Bloom definition: cell #’s >10^6mL^-1
chlorophyll a concentration ? 3-fold of the annual average.
Geosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere
Gaia Hypothesis – (James Lovelock) The chemical constituents within the Earth System are out of equilibrium in a thermodynamic sense. Such “dis-equilibrium” is maintained by the living biosphere.
(In other words: The earth is a living system, it can adjust itself.) Microbial loop is:
Please join StudyMode to read the full document