Chapter 2 Course Notes Anatomy and Physiology

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Chapter 2
Chapter 2 is about Molecular level of life/ the chemical component of life. What does chemistry have to do with our life? Chemical aspect of life.
Matter: anything in the universe that has weight and occupies space. The weight is called mass. The mass will remain constant regardless of gravity.

Can exist in our body in three different forms
Three states of matter in our body.
* Solid: in our body are organs, Bones, they will have different shapes. * Liquid: In our body is water, plasma in blood, saliva, tears, embryonic fluid. These liquids are called an inorganic makeup of our body. Liquid takes form of its container. * Gases: no definite shape, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrogen gas, and nitrogen gas.

Elements: unique substances in our body that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means. Four elements that compose our body.
* Carbon:
* Hydrogen:
* Oxygen:
* Nitrogen:
Make up 96% of our bodies weight.

Atoms
Defined as the smallest non destructible parts of any element that will retain the characteristic of that element. Atoms have structures which means that structure means how a item is put together Contain nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons

Protons: have an electrical charge and will weigh one atomic mass unit. Neutrons: are chargless. Hence neutral. Will weigh one atomic mass unit. Electrons: will be found moving around the nucleus. Will have a negative charge. Do not have any weight meaning they are weightless and have no atomic mass.

Read about
Isotopes, radioisotopes

Molecules/compound
Molecules are formed when there is a combination of two or more atoms. If two or more atoms of the same element combine it is called a molecule of that element. Example: one hydrogen plus another hydrogen is a molecule of hydrogen. or if two or more atoms of different elements combine then the result will be called the molecule of a compound. An example would be two hydrogen atoms with one oxygen atom to create a molecule of water. Mixtures:

When substances of two or more components mix together.
These mixtures can be heterogenus or homogenous.
Heterogenus: means a bunch of things being mixed
A sand will be heterogenous as it is composed up of many things. Homogenous: is the same kind of thing mixed together.

Chemical Bonds
Energy relationship between electrons of the reactant atoms.

The octet rule: the rule of eight
The rule of eight states that with the exception of the first energy shell which will be stable with 2 electrons. Atoms are stable with eight electrons in their outermost shell. Outermost shell is called a valence shell. Any atom that has an incomplete outermost valence electron of five or above will accept and any atom that has four or less will give away electrons to complete the other atoms. If such atom is not complete in its outermost valence electron that is not the first one then such atom would be preexposed to becoming a free radical. Intercellular is anything inside the cell.

Bonding of ions: When you give away you will be positively charged. When you accept atoms you will become negatively charged. Ions: Charged particles in the charged particles we have an amion which is an electron acceptor It carries a net negative charge due to the extra electron. Cation: is an electron donor. The cation carries a positive charge due to the loss of electrons. Crystals are large structures of both cations and anions that are held together by ionic bonds. The most abundant cation that we have in the extracellular compartment will be sodium ion. The most abundant cation that we have in the intracellular compartment is potassium. Salts are always ionic compounds. Because they dissociate completely in water to either accept or donate electrons. Ionic compounds

Factors that can effect chemical reaction
Increase or decrease in temperature: heat will increase chemical reaction, fever for example...
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