Chp 2: Neuroscience
Questions for Brave New Brain, Chapter 4 by Nancy C. Andreasen
Read this packet carefully & completely. The reading is very long, complex & detailed. Consider it a primer reading to help you study the brain. As you read feel free to highlight or underline the actual text as needed. These study questions are to help you key in on what is important. Be sure to answer each question fully and completely. I expect you to TYPE the answers. You may find it easier to save a copy from my webpage and fill in the questions as you go instead of retyping the questions. Due to the length of this assignment it will count as a test grade. (HINT: Questions go in order)
1.What are the three (3) types of brain tissue?
~Gray matter, white matter, and Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
2.List the two (2) neurodegenerative disorders that destroy cell bodies. ~Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
3.What does the cell body do for the neuron?
~Performs basic command functions
4.Why does “cerebral cortex” mean “bark of the brain”? ~The nerve cell bodies are highly concentrated on the surface of the brain, causing it to look like tree bark 5.What does “subcortical” literally mean?
~Below the cortex
6.Name the two (2) demyelinating diseases listed in the text. What do these types of diseases do? ~Multiple sclerosis (MS) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) both harm the white matter of the brain and cut the ties that allow the neurons to communicate with one another
7.What are ventricles?
~Parts inside the brain that carry CSF
8.Name two of the three important functions that CSF carries out. ~Contain nutrients and byproducts of brain activity to help the brain ~Replace missing brain tissue
9.What are gyri and sulci? Why do we have them? Draw a diagram to explain. ~Ridges and dips that cover the surface of the human brain in order for the brain to have enough neurons and stay at a healthy size, because the brain has to do adjusting and when it does, it creates the gyri and sulci 10.How does the brain grow? List and explain in detail each of the seven (7) steps in Table 4-1 on page 45: neuron formation, neuron migration, proliferation of dendrites and spines, synaptogenesis, myelination, pruning, and apoptosis. You may have to read into the text to explain in detail. ~Neuron formation happens a few months after fetus conception, and when DNA begins to send instructions to cells telling them to differentiate into nerve cells and some to change into liver or heart cells. After a sufficient number of nerve cells accumulate, the neurons then embark on a journey known as neuron migration. Pathfinder cells called glia guide the neurons to a new territory where they will create the cerebral cortex and the various subcortical gray matter parts of the brain. After the brain divides into two sides and the cells organize themselves according to the role that they will play in the activities of the brain, dendrites and spines are formed (when each neuron sprouts dendrites that extend themselves by sprouting spines). Synapses are communication points that allow many cells to communicate with each other at the same time and mature and change in a process called synaptogenesis. Myelination occurs when axons are covered and insulated by fat layers, which increase the information speed between neurons. Lastly, pruning and apoptosis must occur to create a balance of connections within the brain because of the excess number of unnecessary cells and connections in the brain. Pruning trims the back overgrowth of dendrites and spines, and apoptosis removes the excess in a process known as programmed cell death. 11.What role does DNA play in neural development?
~It provides basic instructions in neural development with a concept called “brain plasticity” 12.Explain the following in your own words: “neurons that wire together, fire together.” ~Nerve cells that are built together and are...