Biology Study Guide

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II. BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

Objective II.1

Identify the basic components of the neuron.

Key Terms

neuron
dendrites
axon
cell body (soma)

Exercises

1. What is a neuron?
Neurons are individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information

2. Label each part of the neuron.
1.Soma
2.Dendrites
3.Myelin sheath
4.Axon

[pic]

Objective II.2

Define action potential, and explain the processes that occur when a neuron is activated.

Key Terms

action potential
resting potential

Exercises

1. Number the events in the action potential in the order in which they occur. __1___ Positively charged ions flow out of the neuron.
__4___ Positively charged ions flow into the neuron.
__2___ The cell membrane potential is positive.
__3___ The cell membrane potential is negative.

2. What is the "all or none" law?
The muscle or nerves response completely or not at all

Objective II.3

Identify the basic components of the synapse.

Key Terms

synapse

Exercises

1. Which statement about the synapse is false? A
a. The synapse is the place where the dendrites of one neuron link up with the axon of another. b. One neuron can form synapses with many others.
c. Synapses are filled with fluid.
d. Communication between neurons takes place at the synapse.

Objective II.4

Explain how neurotransmitters affect behavior, and identify the major neurotransmitters.

Key Terms

neurotransmitters
acetylcholine
dopamine
serotonin
norepinephrine
endorphins

Exercises

1. Which of the following statements about neurotransmitters is false? B a. Neurotransmitters allow impulses to flow from one neuron to another. b. Neurotransmitters prevent impulses from flowing from one neuron to another. c. Neurotransmitters are stored in the cell bodies of neurons. d. Each neurotransmitter is associated with a unique receptor. e. Unused neurotransmitter are recycled by neurons and used again.

2. Fill in the blank with the appropriate neurotransmitter:

A. ____Serotonin _______ influences eating, alertness, wakefulness. B. ___Dopamine___ is involved in movement and memory.
C. _ Norepinephrine_ affects mood and sleep.
D. _ Endorphins____ provide pain relief
E. __Acetylcholine__ is involved in attention and movement.

Objective II.5

Explain the difference between the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Key Terms

central nervous system
peripheral nervous system

Exercises

1. Label each structure as belonging to the (a) central nervous system or (b) peripheral nervous system A. __a___ spinal cord
B. _ b___ nerves that carry messages from the brain to the body C. __a___ brain
D. ___b__ nerves that carry messages from the body to the brain

Objective II.6

Explain the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

Key Terms

sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
autonomic nervous system

Exercises

1. During an emergency, your __symathetic____________ nervous system prepares you for action. 2. After an emergency passes, your __parasympathetic______ nervous system restores your physical functions to a normal state. 3. Nerves that enable your body to carry out involuntary functions are part of the ______autonomic_________ nervous system.

Objective II.7

Describe the various methods for studying the brain and its functions.

Key Terms

electroencephalograph (EEG)
computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT scan)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
positron emission tomography (PET scan)
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Exercises

1. Write the...
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