Suggested end-of-Chapter Practice Questions: Chapter Seven
1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 13, 19, 22, 29, 32, 33, problem similar to HW
1. What is the process of asset transformation performed by a financial institution? Why does this process often lead to the creation of interest rate risk? What is interest rate risk?
Asset transformation by an FI involves purchasing primary assets and issuing secondary assets as a source of funds. The primary securities purchased by the FI often have maturity and liquidity characteristics that are different from the secondary securities issued by the FI. For example, a bank buys medium- to long-term bonds and makes medium-term loans with funds raised by issuing short-term deposits.
Interest rate risk occurs because the prices and reinvestment income characteristics of long-term assets react differently to changes in market interest rates than the prices and interest expense characteristics of short-term deposits. Interest rate risk is the effect on prices (value) and interim cash flows (interest coupon payment) caused by changes in the level of interest rates during the life of the financial asset.
2. What is refinancing risk? How is refinancing risk part of interest rate risk? If an FI funds long-term fixed-rate assets with short-term liabilities, what will be the impact on earnings of an increase in the rate of interest? A decrease in the rate of interest?
Refinancing risk is the uncertainty of the cost of a new source of funds that are being used to finance a long-term fixed-rate asset. This risk occurs when an FI is holding assets with maturities greater than the maturities of its liabilities. For example, if a bank has a ten-year fixed-rate loan funded by a 2-year time deposit, the bank faces a risk of borrowing new deposits, or refinancing, at a higher rate in two years. Thus, interest rate increases would reduce net interest income. The bank would benefit if the rates fall as the cost of renewing the deposits would decrease, while the earning rate on the assets would not change. In this case, net interest income would increase.
3. What is reinvestment risk? How is reinvestment risk part of interest rate risk? If an FI funds short-term assets with long-term liabilities, what will be the impact on earnings of a decrease in the rate of interest? An increase in the rate of interest?
Reinvestment risk is the uncertainty of the earning rate on the redeployment of assets that have matured. This risk occurs when an FI holds assets with maturities that are less than the maturities of its liabilities. For example, if a bank has a two-year loan funded by a ten-year fixed-rate time deposit, the bank faces the risk that it might be forced to lend or reinvest the money at lower rates after two years, perhaps even below the deposit rates. Also, if the bank receives periodic cash flows, such as coupon payments from a bond or monthly payments on a loan, these periodic cash flows will also be reinvested at the new lower (or higher) interest rates. Besides the effect on the income statement, this reinvestment risk may cause the realized yields on the assets to differ from the a priori expected yields.
How does the policy of matching the maturities of assets and liabilities work (a) to minimize interest rate risk and (b) against the asset-transformation function for FIs?
A policy of maturity matching will allow changes in market interest rates to have approximately the same effect on both interest income and interest expense. An increase in rates will tend to increase both income and expense, and a decrease in rates will tend to decrease both income and expense. The changes in income and expense may not be equal because of different cash flow characteristics of the assets and liabilities. The asset-transformation function of an FI involves investing short-term liabilities into long-term assets. Maturity matching clearly works against successful...
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