Automation and Robotic

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Automation and
Robotics

Dr. Rizauddin Ramli

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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

Ch 1 Introduction
Sections:
1. Production Systems
2. Automation in Production Systems
3. Manual Labor in Production Systems
4. Automation Principles and Strategies

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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

The Realities of Modern
Manufacturing
• Globalization - Once underdeveloped countries
(e.g., China, India, Mexico) are becoming major
players in manufacturing
• International outsourcing - Parts and products
once made in the United States by American
companies are now being made offshore
(overseas) or near-shore (in Mexico and Central
America)
• Local outsourcing - Use of suppliers within the
U.S. to provide parts and services
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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

Reason of local outsourcing
• Benefits from suppliers that specialize in certain
production technique
• Lower labor rates in smaller companies
• Limitations of available in-house manufacturing
capabilities

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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

More Realities of Modern
Manufacturing
• Contract manufacturing - Companies that specialize in
manufacturing entire products, not just parts, under
contract to other companies
• Trend toward the service sector in the U.S. economy
-Low demand in direct jobs in manufacturing; high demand
in service industries
• Quality expectations - Customers, both consumer and
corporate, demand products of the highest quality
• Need for operational efficiency - U.S. manufacturers
must be efficient in in their operations to overcome the
labor cost advantage of international competitors
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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

Modern Manufacturing
Approaches and Technologies
• Automation - automated equipment instead of labor
• Material handling technologies - because manufacturing
usually involves a sequence of activities
• Manufacturing systems - integration and coordination of
multiple automated or manual workstations
• Flexible manufacturing - to compete in the lowvolume/high-mix product categories • Quality programs - to achieve the high quality expected
by today's customers
• CIM –CAD,CAM and computer networks to integrate
design, production, and logistics
• Lean production - more work with fewer resources:
increase labor productivity and operational efficiencies
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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

Production Systems

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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

Production System
A collection of people, equipment, and procedures
organized to accomplish the manufacturing
operations of a company
Two categories:
• Facilities – the factory and equipment in the facility and the way the facility is organized (plant layout)
• Manufacturing support systems – the set of
procedures used by a company to manage
production and to solve technical and logistics
problems in ordering materials, moving work through
the factory, and ensuring that products meet quality
standards
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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

The Production System

•In modern manufacturing operations, portions of the production system are automated and/or computerized.
•However people/labor who runs the system.
•Direct labor-responsible for operating the facilities
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•Professional staff-responsible forAutomation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010 manufacturing support system

Production System Facilities
Facilities include the factory, production machines and
tooling, material handling equipment, inspection
equipment, and computer systems that control the
manufacturing operations
• Plant layout – the way the equipment is physically
arranged in the factory
• Manufacturing systems
-individual work cell
– Stand-alone workstation and worker
-groups of equipment and workers in the factory
– Production line
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Automation and Robotics‐KKKP6513 RR2010

Manufacturing Systems
Three categories in terms of the human participation in the...
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