* Located between the Brooks Range and the Alaska Range.
* 11 different ethnic-linguistic groups that are further divided into regional and local bands. * Flexible and adaptive people.
* Patterns of Settlement vary between sedentary to nomadic. * Population estimated to be around 11,000.
Food and Diet
* The two main emphases are Salmon and Caribou.
* Since the range of the Athabaskans is so great, the diet changes between different groups. * Beaver is very important during the winter time because it has a high fat content and helps the Athabaskans avoid starvation. * During summer they collect berries and greens and store them in the winter to eat.
* Vary Dramatically
* Deghitan- They build semi subterranean log dwellings which have tunnel entry ways. * Koyukon and Tanana- Semi subterranean log dwellings built into the high banks of the Yukon and Tanana rivers. * Dena’ina- Semi subterranean dwellings with tunnel entry and the walls are made with logs and banked with earth. * Atna’- large plank house.
* Gwich’in- portable, dome shaped caribou or moose skin tents. (summertime) Tools and Technologies
* Used stone implements for cutting and processing wood, skins and for making tools out of bone and antlers. * Distinctive for their use of bark.
Ex. Containers, roofs, vessels, bowls, and canoes.
* They are masters of making and setting snares and deadfalls for capturing animals, from birds to bears.
* Birch Bark Canoes
* Moose-Skin Coracles
* Sled Dogs
* Tobaggan Sleds
Clothing and Decoration
* Mostly made from Caribou Skin
* Woman made the Clothing
* Winter=Fur Summer=No Fur
* Geometric Patterns made from porcupine quills, dentalium shells, dried berries, and seeds. * Lots of Fringes.
* Infants were carried in a bark cradle board.
* Facial tattoos