Apush Notes: Constitution- Monroe Doctrine

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Articles of Confederation to the Constitution
A.The Articles of Confederation
a.The writers of the Articles of Confederation were cautious about giving the new government powers they had just denied Parliament. b.Weaknesses in the Articles included the following:
i.A lack of authority to tax
ii.A lack of authority to exercise authority directly over the states c.The most important accomplishment was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. That ordinance did the following: i.Provided for the orderly creation of the territorial governments and new states (Ohio was the first state admitted to the Union from the Northwest territory.) ii.Excluded slavery north of the Ohio River

iii.Supported public education
B.Shay’s Rebellion, 1786
a.The rebellion was sparked by the economic frustrations of Massachusetts farmers who were losing their farms because they could not pay debts in hard currency. b.The leaders of Shays’ Rebellion sought these changes:

i.An end to farm foreclosures
ii.An end to imprisonment for debt
iii.Relief from oppressively high taxation
iv.Increased circulation of paper money
c.The leaders of Shays’ Rebellion did not attempt to overthrow the government of Massachusetts. d.Shays’ Rebellion helped convince key leaders that the Articles of Confederation were too weak and that the United States needed a stronger central government. C.The Federal Constitution

a.The Constitution was the result of a series of compromises that created a government acceptable to large and small states, as well as to free and slave states. b.The following provisions were in the Constitution, as submitted to the states in 1787: i.The separation of powers, which organizes the national government into three branches ii.The authority of Congress to declare war

iii.A guarantee of the legality of slavery
iv.The creation of an Electoral College to safeguard the presidency from direct popular election v.Provision for impeachment of the President
vi.Provision for the presidential State of the Union message vii.Provision for ratifying the Constitution
viii.Federalism
ix.A bicameral legislature, as created by the Great compromise x.Enumeration of the powers of Congress
xi.The Three-Fifths Compromise (Slaves counted as a three-fifths of a person for purposes of representation and taxation.) c.The following provisions were not in the Constitution, as submitted to the states in 1787: i.A two-term limit for presidents

ii.Universal manhood suffrage
iii.A presidential cabinet
iv.The direct election of senators
v.Guarantees of freedom of speech and of press (added in the Bill of Rights) vi.The right to a speedy and public trial (added in the Bill of Rights) vii.The idea of political parties (The framers opposed political parties. They believed that political parties promoted selfish interests, cause divisions, and thus threatened the existence of republican government.) D.The Federalist Papers, 1887

a.Alexander Hamilton and James Madison wrote the Federalist Papers (sometimes known as The Federalist) to support ratification of the Constitution of 1787. b.The prevailing conventional wisdom was challenged when Madison and Hamilton asserted that a large republic offered the best protection of minority rights. “In an expanding Republic,” wrote Madison, “so many different groups and viewpoints would be included in the Congress that tyranny by the majority would be impossible.” E.Anti-Federalists

a.Those opposed to federalism feared that a strong central government would become tyrannical. b.Opponents of federalism did the following:
i.Drew support primarily from rural areas
ii.Argued that the President would have too much power
iii.Feared that Congress would levy heavy taxes
iv.Feared that the government would raise a standing army
v.Believed that the new national government would overwhelm the states vi.Argued that individual rights needed to be protected

Alexander Hamilton’s Economic...
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