Apush Notes: Articles Of Confederation Era

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Leland Pinkham
Period Apush

Articles of confederation era:
* Each state functioned as its own little country
* No national currency, many state currencies
* Paper money issued as a promise for hard specie such as gold and silver * High inflation

* Newburgh conspiracy 1783: plan by unpaid continental army officers to force congress to assume powers of taxation over states * Northwest territory:
* Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan area given to congress * Was the national governments only source of income
* Land ordinance of 1785:
* townships six miles square to be auctioned off (land speculation) * 16th acre reserved for public schools

* Annapolis convention:
* convention to address weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation * only 5 states send delegates

* Shays Rebellion:
* Led by Daniel Shay
* Massachusetts passes high taxes to pay off revolutionary war debt, but will no longer accept paper money, only hard currency accepted as payment for taxes * Many famers foreclosed on for nonpayment of taxes * Mobs not stopped because there is no military

* Event that exposes the weaknesses and killed the Articles

* Philadelphia Convention/ Constitutional convention:
* May- September 1787
* To “revise” The Articles
* Jefferson and Adams absent
* Virginia plan:
* Presented by James Madison
* A bicamel legislature based on population/equality * 3 branches of government

The Federalist # 10:
* By James Madison
* Propaganda for federalists urging for stronger central government. * Says government is too weak
* Public wellbeing is degraded because of rival parties, too much strife * Destroy liberty or give every citizen the same options, passions and interests; but cant destroy liberty because it is essential; to politics * Government is to protect people from themselves

* Various and unequal distribution of property
* Gov needs to regulate interests
* Separation of powers; men unfit to be both judges and parties * Strong large republic would be better than many state governments

The Constitution:
* Article 1 Section 8: National government powers
* Article 1 section 9: State government powers
* Only way to amend the constitution is for 2/3 of both senate and HoR approve, then state vote and 75% must approve.

The Great compromise:
* Proposed by Roger Sherman
* Bi-camel legislature:
* 1 House of equality: the senate, 6 year terms
* 1 house based on population: The Hose of Representatives, 2 year terms * Senate was a check on the “mob”
* HoR originally each state got one representative for every 30000 people, capped at 435

* 3/5 compromise: slaves count as 3/5 of a person, but the state’s tax bill was proportional to the state’s population. Win on both sides. Issue of slavery put off until 1808 * 9/13 states needed to ratify constitution.

Limits on direst democracy:
* Electoral college
* To win the presidential election a candidate needs a majority greater than 51% * Electors were to select two names: first majority was president; second majority was vice president (not how it is done today). * Originally electors selected by state legislatures. Now each party chooses their electors on party loyalty because of the winner take all system, it is possible to win the popular vote but will the Electoral College.

Amendments:
1. Freedom of speech/expression/religion etc.
2. Right to bear arms
3. No quartering in peacetime
4. Warrant needed/probable cause
5. Right to remain silent. Rights of the accused. Speedy Jury trial by peers, ability to call witnesses. 6. Protected from double jeopardy, eminent domain (compelling public interest, just compensation) 7. Right to civil trial by...
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