APUSH Chapter 12
Antebellum Culture and Reform
Hudson River School – The first great school of American painters, based in New York. The painters portrayed that America’s “wild nature” made them superior to Europe. Cooper and the American Wilderness – James Fenimore Cooper was the first great American novelist (The Last of the Mohicans, The Deerslayer) His novels “The Leatherstocking Tales” were a celebration of the American spirit and landscape Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry D. Thoreau – rejected societal norms as a whole and supported individual independence. Controversial, though they gained many followers. Brook Farm – established by George Ripley as an experimental community in West Roxbury, MA. Individuals would gather to create a new form of social organization, permitting everyone to self-realization. Brook Farm failed but inspired many similar communities. The Oneida Community – one of the most enduring utopian communities. It was declared that all residents were married to all other residents. Women were protected against unwanted childbearing and children were raised communally. Shakerism – commitment to complete celibacy, openly endorsed the idea of sexual equality. Reform Movements – worked on behalf of temperance, education, poor, handicapped, etc Charles Finney – similar to Thoreau/Emerson, said that everyone could find salvation through individual effort. Gained support from women and eventually became very popular and gained a following. Temperance Crusade – against alcohol! Women were in favor. Access to alcohol was growing and with it was abuse. States started passing restriction laws. Phrenology – argued that the shape of a person’s skull determined their character and intelligence. Reforming Education – Horace Mann said that education was the only way to protect democracy. He lengthened the academic year, doubled teachers salaries, and his examples lead to similar institutions in other states. Rehabilitation Reforms – the creation...
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