Louis (1980) “a process by which an individual comes to appreciate the values, abilities, expected behaviours and social knowledge essential for assuming an organisational role and for participating as an organisational member”. Orgs believe it will be helpful with productivity and turnover (Wesson and Gogus, 2005) Help newcomer to adjust by introducing:
Klein and Weaver (2000)
Compared attenders (55) and non-attenders (61) of University staff orientation programme. Programme focused on giving information about the organisation. Mix of paper based, live speakers, video, game and discussion Attenders later knew more about the organisation that non-attenders Programme focused on giving information about the organisation. Mix of paper based, live speakers, video, game and discussion Attenders later knew more about the organisation that non-attenders
Wesson and Gogus (2005)
Compared new recruits under traditional scheme (5 days away, social events, speakers) with 2-3 day self-guided multi-media training programme Questionnaires 4-5 months later
Computers deliver information, but not more
Joining a new organisation Stressful life event, particularly for certain workers e.g. Kawi and Xu (2009)
Wanous and Reichers – ROPES (Realistic Orientation Programmes for new Employee Stress) – emphasis on stress innoculation Include realistic information (lower expect’ns)
Provide general support & reassurance
Use models to show coping skills
Discuss models’ actions
Rehearse these actions
Teach self-control of thoughts & feelings
Give specific information for particular jobs
Information in ROPES should be delivered:
Information from a credible source
Problem and coping
Via video and live speakers
Away from distractions
Through repetition of message
By making personally relevant
By encouraging thinking
Buckley et al (1998) focused on reducing expectations by realistic job previews and expectation lowering procedure (ELP). 140 staff – 4 conditions :
1) no orientation programme
2) traditional programme
3) Realistic Job Preview (RJP) and traditional programme
4) Expectation Lowering Programme (ELP) and traditional programme.
Tested at start, 6 and 12 months
Highest turnover in groups 1-2
Satisfaction highest in 3 and 4 at six months
3 is 'best liked'
ELP is good RJP is good, why not both?
Chao et al (1994) ‘six facets of socialisation’
Organisational goals and values
Porter, Lawler and Hackman (1975)
Waldeck (2009) suggested that people can get high expectations about the workplace from TV (can lead to unhappiness, and dissatisfaction. Monotenous work.
Formal onsite orient’n
3.18 JS C
Offsite res training
3.08 C T
Mixing with ‘newbies’
Relnshp with snr coworker
3.79 JS C
3.96 JS C T
3.52 JS C T
2.86 JS C T
On average, the time for new external hires to achieve full productivity ranged from eight weeks for clerical jobs to 20 weeks for professionals to more than 26 weeks for executives. Source: Williams, R. (2003). Mellon learning curve research study.New York: Mellon Corp.
a process in which an individual acquires the attitudes, behaviors and knowledge needed to successfully participate as an organizational member (Schein, 1979)
1. Anticipatory socialization: This stage occurs before new hires join the organization. Through interacting with representatives of the company (e.g., recruiters, managers), new hires develop expectations about the company and the job prior to organizational entry. 2. Encounter: When new employees begin a new job, they start to learn about job tasks and...