Unit 4: The Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment and 18th Century Society and Economy
From your ever-lovin’ teacher: I do not expect you to understand Aristotelian physics and or the mathematics that tie into this unit. Save that for your physics class. The purpose of this study of science is to understand how it fits into the big picture of European history.
BIG QUESTIONS: (as you work through the chapter, keep these questions in mind DO NOT ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS PLEASE)
1. What were the astronomical theories of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton? What is meant by “scientific worldview?”
2. What was the impact of the new science on philosophy?
3. How did early modern science affect the social setting?
4. What role did women take in the scientific revolution?
5. What was the connection of science and religion?
6. Was witchcraft real?
Natural philosophers = scientists (the word “science” wasn’t really invented until sometime in the 1830s) The understanding that the sun was only one of a gazillion stars transformed humankind’s perception of its place in the larger scheme of things led to a profound rethinking of moral and religious matters, as well as of scientific theory. Hey! Wait a minute! I thought I was the center of the universe!!! Does this mean I’m not as important as I think I am? What a concept…..
Study Guide: Chapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture
The Scientific Revolution (Pages 454-459)
1) Describe what is meant by the phrase “scientific revolution”. Who was a part of this “revolution”? Over what time frame does it occur? 2) How was the the Copernican Hypothesis received, especially by the religious communities (1473-1543)? 3) How did Kepler and Newton contribute to the scientific revolution?
Philosophy Responds to Changing Science (Pages 459-466)
4) Discuss the various factors that contributed to the growth and development of the scientific revolution. 5) What did Francis Bacon (1561-1626) believe about the purpose behind science or natural philosophy? 6) How did Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes contribute to the modern scientific method? 7) How did John Locke influence the field of psychology?
The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge (Pages 466-467) 8) What was Scholasticism?
9) What were the new institutions of learning? Where were they? 10)What were the goals of the newly formed scientific societies?
Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution (Pages 468-470) 11) What did Margaret Cavendish accomplish (1623-1673)?
12) What did Maria Winkelmann accomplish?
The New Science and Religious Religious Faith (Pages 470-473) 13) What three major issues were associated with the new science and religion? 14) Why was Galileo’s Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615) controversial? 15) Why was Galileo’s Dialogue of the Two Chief World Systems (1632) controversial? 16) Why was Galileo tried in 1633? What was the result?
17How did Blaise Pascal (1623-1662 reconcile science and religion? • What was his wager?
18) What was physico-theology?
Continuing Superstition (Pages 473-478: including special box articles) 19) Approximately how many people were sentenced to death for performing harmful magic between 1400 and 1700? What is it that they were believed to have done? 20) Who were “cunning folk” of village societies? Why did Christianity believe these people to be a threat? 21) Why were 80% of the victims of witch-hunts women?
22) Why did the witch-hunts end?
23) What role did midwives play in early modern Europe?
Study Guide: CHAPTER 15: Society and Economy Under the Old Regime
BIG QUESTIONS: (as you work through the chapter, keep these questions in mind DO NOT ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS) 1. What were the varied privileges and power of Europe’s aristocracies in the Old Regime and what were their efforts to increase their wealth?
2. What was the plight of the rural peasants?
3. What was...