Slide 1: Essential Questions
What ways does psychology approach the study of human and animal behavior? How has psychology changed the study of human and animal behavior? How do the different perspectives in psychology compare and contrast?
Slide 2: Psychology
Comes from two Greek words…
psyche, meaning “life” or “self”
logos, referring to reasoning and logic
Slide 3: Psychology’s Roots
Study of behavior and mental processes
aims to describe and explain how we think, feel, and act
anything an organism does
any action we can observe/record
examples: yelling, smiling, blinking, talking
internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior
Examples: sensations, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, feelings
Slide 4: Questions People In Field Of Psychology Try To Answer… Do violent video games encourage violent behavior?
What are the best colors to use in a fast food restaurant?
Why do some people worry more than others?
How could anyone do something like that?
Slide 5: What Do Psychologists Do…
APA lists 5 major areas of work:
Promote physical and mental health
Help people learn
Work in the community
Contribute to the work environment
Slide 6: Different Looks of A Psychologist:
white coated scientist poking a rat’s brain
an executive evaluating a new “healthy life-styles” training program for employees someone at a computer analyzing data on whether adopted teens’ temperaments more closely resemble those of their adoptive/biological parents therapist listening to client’s depressed thoughts
a teacher teaching a class
psych is a meeting ground for different disciplines
Slide 7: Subfields
Slide 8: Basic and Applied Research
builds psych’s knowledge base
ex: biological psychologists explore links between brain and mind, developmental psychologists studying our changing abilities from womb to womb tries to find out why people behave the way they do
compares the effectiveness of different treatments
tackles practical problems
uses the knowledge gained from research to help people
uses psych’s concepts and methods to help organizations and companies hire employees more effectively, to boost morale and productivity, to design products, and to implement systems ex: how to have a happy marriage, how to overcome anxiety, how to raise children
Slide 9: “I was just rubbing sticks together, I didn’t realize i was doing basic research”
Slide 10: Nature v. Nurture
how do our minds work?
how do our bodies relate to our minds?
how much of what we know come built in?
how much is acquired through experience?
how are differences in intelligence, personality, and psychological disorders influenced by heredity and by environment? are gender differences biologically predisposed or socially constructed?
Darwin’s theory of natural selection and evolution is the biggest contributor to the nurture debate Ideal participants for studying this debate: identical twins
Slide 11: Prescientific Psychology
Socrates (469-399 B.C.) & Plato (428-348 B.C.)
ancient greek philosopher/teacher
Plato was Socrates’ student
concluded that mind is separable from body and continues after the bodies dies knowledge is innate
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
derived principles form logic and careful observations which told him that the soul (De Anima) is not separable from the body knowledge is not innate/grows from experiences
agreed with socrates and plato
dissected animals and concluded that the fluid in the...