Ap Human Geography Ch.11

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Chapter 11
Vocabulary Relevancies

1. organic agriculture – The return to farming without pesticides; allows small farmers in core countries to compete with agribusiness. When fair trade laws are applied, organic farming in peripheral and semi-peripheral countries can bring wealth into a country by exporting to wealthier nations.

2. primary economic activity – most basic use of the natural environment to sustain human functions. Examples: hunting/gathering, farming, ranching, logging, fishing, mining

3. secondary economic activity – The act of changing a primary product into something new. Examples – wood into furniture; oil into petroleum; fruits and vegetables into canned products; plant components into make-up etc.

4. tertiary economic activity –
Activities that connect producers to consumers. – merchants, retailers, doctors, clerks and secretaries. Support staff of the community – teachers, doctors, nurses, bankers

5. quaternary economic activity – information creation and transfer; activities that assemble, distribute, and process information; they also manage other business operations. University researchers and investment analysts are examples of quaternary economic activities.

6. quinary economic activity – activities exist as a sub-classification of quaternary activities and involve the highest-level of decision making, such as decisions made by a legislature or a presidential cabinet. High level, government-targeted research is also included int the quinary sector.

7. plant domestication – instead of gathering what was growing, thoughtful creation of fields of a particular plant. First was the purposeful production of root crops in tropical areas, then the seed crops in the river valley civilizations and the Yucatan peninsula.

8. root crops - Crop that is reproduced by cultivating the roots of or the cuttings from the plants. Though potatoes are money -making staple root crops that can be grown in a lot of temperate areas, tropical root crops, such as the cassava are less lucrative.

9. seed crops- Crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants. The early river valley civilizations developed seed crops. The first were developed in the Mesopotamia.

10. First Agricultural Revolution – Neolithic Revolution; advent of farming. Lead to the development of civilizations.

11. animal domestication- Genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control. This also is used to create animals that produce more milk, bigger eggs etc.

12. subsistence agriculture-Self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology and emphasizes food production for local consumption, not for trade. The more people involved in subsistence agriculture, the less developed. Often subsistence agriculture is done with very basic tools.

13. shifting cultivation- Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland. Also known as slash-and-burn agriculture. This is a subsistence design and is the better way to utilize farming in the rainforest.

14. Second Agricultural Revolution Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce- led to population boom in Europe.

15. von Thunen model - A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market. Perishability and bulkiness are key terms in the products of each ring. This is a more local...
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