Late Middle Ages, Renaissance, Reformation
Essay Outline #1 kk
The Catholic Reformation was developed to rebuild Roman Catholicism and put an end to the spread of Protestantism. Appealed to the community by reviving catholic ideas and getting rid of corruption restored the Catholic Church. As a counter attack to the Protestant Reformation, Catholic teachings were reinforced in an effort to oppress Protestant beliefs.
Luther’s Main Beliefs
Humans can reach salvation through justification by faith alone (through faith in God, not good works). The bible is supreme authority, believed in the two sacraments of Baptism and Communion, was in between consubstantiation and transubstantiation. Had a value in all vocations and believed marriage was good and healthy for priests. Supported the priesthood of all believers, stating that the church includes all believers.
The Jesuits and Ignatius of Loyola established many highly disciplined schools. Francis Xavier developed schools and missions in Asia and other countries to counter Protestant beliefs. Pope Paul III and Paul IV re-established honor to the Papacy and created the Holy Office. Roman–Catholic Church reformed papacy to exterminate corruption and prove the value in the Catholic Church.
Council of Trent
Declared that only the Church could interpret the Scripture and recognized the authority of the popes. To reach salvation it was required to have strong faith in God and do good works. The seven sacraments were restored along with transubstantiation and clerical celibacy. Obtained doctrines that presented the popes with supremacy over all bishops and councils.
The Catholic Reformation was initiated through the want to afflict Protestant beliefs. Rebuilt and restored the Roman–Catholic Church but mended the corruption within the popes. Also known as the Counter Reformation, established a system that got rid of corruption and could no longer be taken over.
Essay Outline #4
Europeans started a lager scale of trade all around the world; also developed the Triangular Trade Route. Population increased by 20 million, which lead to a greater demand for goods. Price inflation caused the value of money to drop while prices continued to rise. Thesis: Certain factors such as the development of the Triangular Trade Route, increase in population, price inflation, and the achievements of joint–stock companies, all led to the growth of a flourishing economic and political system known as commercial capitalism.
Trade and Mercantilism
A route that allowed Europeans to trade with Africa, the Americas, and Asia. Trade and mercantilism became very successful; people began to trade at a larger and more global scale. Finite amount of wealth; bring as much wealth to your country as possible. A favorable balance of trade meant that you sold more than you bought and bought only from people of your own country.
The growth of population by 20 million caused a greater demand for goods. More people coming in meant more people wanting to buy products and majorly helped the buyers market. The greater demand for goods helped the economic productivity and increased the value of goods. Many people had money to spend, which later also led to the development of inflation.
Price inflation meant that the value of money went down while prices went up. Traders and merchants become successful but other businesses and stock companies drop. Joint stock companies emerged and entrepreneurs made combined investments. New industries of mining, shipbuilding, and weapon making also began to develop.
Mercantilism and the finite amount of wealth along with the favorable balance of trade. The local system converted to a more global national state system of a larger nation. The decline of early commercial centers sparked the ideas of private ownership of property and an...