Both conservative and radical dictatorships wept through Europe in the 20s and 30s. Conservative dictatorships were quite old and the new dictatorships were totalitarian. Traditional form of antidemocratic government was conserve. authoritarianism (which prevented major changes that would undermine existing order, had limited power). Relied on bureaucracies, police, and armies. Liberals, democrats, and socialists were persecuted as radicals. C.A. limited their demands to taxes, army recruits, and passive acceptance. Only Czecho was liberal in political. Parliamentary regime were founded but lands lacked a self government necessary restraint and compromise. Dictatorship appealed to nationalists and military leaders as a way to repress tensions and preserve national unity. People were more concerned with maintaining the status quo than with forcing rapid change or war.
Radical totalitarian dictatorships:
Mainly in central and eastern Europe and emerged in USSR, Germany, and Italy. It was believed that it rejected parliamentary restraint and liberal values. These dictatorships controlled over the masses and sought to mobilize them. Mussolini spike of the “free totalitarian will”. People linked Italian and German fascism with USSR communism. There was an Alliance with Stalin and Hitler in 1929. The war called forth tendency to subordinate all intuitions and classes to achieve victory. The Nature of Modern war (Fascism, Nazism, and Communism). Lenin carried WW1 in the Russian civil war. Lenin showed how a dedicated minority could achieve victory over a less determined majority. Lenin inspired Hitler. Totalitarian states used modern technology and communications to exercise complete political power. State took over and tried to control economy, social, intellectual, and cultural lives. Vision of total state represented a revolt against liberalism. Tot. Leaders did not believe in liberalism and believed in willpower, conflict, and violence. Totalitarian was a permanent revolution in which rapid profound change imposed from on high went on forever. Soviet communism (Marxian Socialism) sized all private property for the state. Nazi Germany was nationalist and racist but didn’t take land away. (Russia = Left, Germany = Right) Fascism was decaying capitalism and domestic class conflict. Many characteristics of Fascism was shared. A similar revaluation of USSR is in progress now that the fall of communism has opened the former Soviet Unions archives. Writers often linked fascism to decaying capitalism and domestic class conflict. Expansionist nationalism, an antiscoailism aimed at destroying working class movements; aliances with powerful capitalists and landowners; a dynamic and violent leader. STALIN
From Lenin to Stalin:
Five year plans marked the beginning of renewd attempt to mobilize and transform soviet society along socialist lines. Plans were to generate new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new humanity. Land was devastated after Ruski Civil war, including a break down of Industrial production. (Bolsheviks had destroyed the economy). Lenin announces NEP which allows limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild industry. Peasents were permitted to sell their surpluses in free markets and NEP was good. Economic boosts occur. Stalin was a good organizer but terrible at everything else, however he is effective at gaining the all important support. Stalin developed a theory of “socialism in one country” rather than Trotsky’s permanent revolution. Stalin aligned with the moderates, he turned to allies, the moderates.
The five year plans:
Party congress marked the end of NEP (1927). 5.Y.P. had goals to increase industry, agriculture production, and make peasants give up lots. Stalin feared a gradual restoration of capitalism and wanted to take away all private ownership/business. Peasants wanted land and got it, and the peasants would become...