1. the "weekend"- New work patterns that established the weekend as a distinct time of recreation and fun.
2. Coney Island and Blackpool- both are amusement parks. Coney Island was only 8 miles away from central New York City and Blackpool in England was a short train ride from nearby industrial towns.
3. "day-trippers"- People who sit on the beach just to get fresh air.
4. Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan – Thomas Edison invented the light bulb. Joseph Swan opened homes and cities to illumination by electric lights.
5. Graham Bell – invented the telephone in 1876.
6. Guglielmo Marconi – Sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901.
7. internal combustion engine - The first internal combustion engine, fired by gas and air, was produced in 1878.
8. Gottlieb Daimler – invented the light engine in 1886. It was the key to the development of the automobile.
9. Henry Ford – revolutionized the car industry with the mass production of the Model T.
10. Wilbur and Orville Wright – Made the first airplane.
11. Cartels – a combination of independent commercial enterprises that work together to control prices and limit competition.
12. the assembly line – it produced greater efficiency and cut labor costs. It was a manufacturing process with the use of interchangeable parts and precision tools.
13. Second Industrial Revolution - Started after 1871. New chemicals were made which enabled Germany and France to take the lead in producing the alkalies used in the textile, soap, and paper industries, as well as soda, whereas Great Britain fell behind. Electricity was the new source of energy that could form into other energy such as heat, light and motion. In 1870s, the first commercially practical generators of electrical current were developed. It also spawned new inventions. There was also the development of the internal combustion engine, which had a similar effect to electricity. Electricity also allowed countries that did not have adequate coal supplies now enter the industrial age.
14. sweatshops and "sweating"- the subcontracting of piecework, usually tailor-trades, poorly paid, very long hours, worst was "slop work," jobs for lower class women.
15. white-collar jobs – After 1870, new job opportunities for women became available. The development of larger industrial plants and the expansion of government services created a large number of service or white-collar jobs. The increased demand for white-collar workers at relatively low wages, coupled with a shortage of male workers, led employers to hire women. Except for teaching and nursing, the jobs required few skills beyond literacy. For some middle-class women, the jobs offered freedom from the domestic patterns expected of them. Most of the new white-collar jobs were filled by working-class women who saw them as an opportunity to escape from the “dirty” work of the lower-class world. Studies in France and Britain indicate that the increase in white-collar jobs did not lead to a rise in the size of female labor force, only to a shift from industrial jobs to the white-collar sector of the economy.
16. Contagious Diseases Acts – The British government attempted to enforce the Contagious Diseases Acts in the 1870s and 1880s by giving authorities the right to examine prostitutes for venereal disease. Prostitutes found to be infected were confined for some time to special institutions called lock hospitals, where they were given. Opposition to the Contagious Diseases Acts arose from middle-class female reformers. The leader was Josephine Butler who objected the laws that punished the women but not men who suffered from venereal disease. They were known as the “shrieking sisters” because they discussed sexual matters in public. Butler and her fellow reformers were successful in gaining the repeal of the acts in 1886.
Wilhelm Liebkneet and August Bebel – the two Marxist leaders of...
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