Wednesday, August 17, 2011 3:38 PM
Once glucose is made, glucose molecules can be converted (by plants) to… 1) monosaccharides, like fructose 2) Disaccharides a. Maltose (glu‐glu) seeds b. Sucrose (glu‐fru) sugar cane, sugar beets 3) Polysaccharides a. Starch, food storage in roots (chains of glucose) b. Cellulose, plant structure (chains of glucose) 4) Amino Acids a. Glucose + N from ground 5) Lipids, specifically oils which are energy source in seeds & phospholipids found in membranes 6) Nucleic Acids a. Glucose + N + P from the ground Animals make some molecules unique to them 1) Galactose (monosaccharide) from glucose 2) Lactose (disaccharide) Glu‐Gal found in milk 3) Solid lipids (not oils) solid at room temperature 4) Glycogen‐ chains of glucose used for energy storage Synthesizing Polymers 1) Dehydration synthesis a. monomers join together into polymers while losing water molecules. This process is carried out by losing (‐OH) from one of the monomers and (H) from another monomer. The two unstable monomers join together, and the (‐OH) and (H) combine forming water (H2O) Taking Polymers Apart 1) Hydrolysis a. Adding H2O so that OH and H can be restored
Carbohydrates 1) Monosaccharides= same formula (C6H12O6) yet slightly different structures 2) Polysaccharides a. Starch (amylose)= unbranched chain of glucose b. Glycogen= branched chain of glucose (20 min supply in muscles) both starch & glycogen are made from α (alpha) glucose, both bonds can be hydrolyzed by our bodies c. Cellulose is made from β (beta) glucose. Our bodies cannot hydrolyze cellulose: cellulose is indigestible & comes out as #2. β Glucose are H‐bonded together for added strength α Glucose does not have H‐bonds Lipids 1) Triglyceride a. Glycerol + 3 fatty acid molecule 3 carbons | each fatty acid is a long chain b. Saturated= all carbon‐carbon bonds are single (c‐c), solid at room temperature c. Unsaturated= at least one carbon‐carbon bond is double (c=), Liquid at room temperature 2) Phospholipids a. Phosphate "head" (hydrophillic) b. 2 fatty acid tails (hydrophobic) c. These make up cell membranes 3) Steroids a. Name for a fat (lipid) molecule made of "rings" instead of straight chains Proteins 1) Each different protein has its own unique shape 2) All proteins are made of the same 20 amino acids a. All living things are made of the same amino acids
AP Bio Page 1
4 Levels of Protein Structure 1) Primary= Order of amino acids in the chain, order is determined by DNA 2) Secondary= H‐bond formation between amino groups & carboxyl groups of AA 3) Tertiary a. Amino acids with sulfur will form disulfide bonds with each other b. Hydrogen bonds between 'R' groups c. Ionic bonds between 'R' groups 4) Quaternary a. Separate protein chains unite to make a big protein
Enzymes 1) They are proteins 2) They must be made by cells 3) They are specific; each enzyme can only catalyze one reaction a. Each reaction requires its own enzyme 4) Individual enzymes can catalyze many reactions 5) They lower the activation energy for chemical reactions a. They don’t just "make the reaction happen" 6) How enzymes work a. Active site of enzyme is very reactive & causes old chemical bonds to break & new chemical bonds to form. i. Substrate= reactants ii. Products= products Inhibition 1) Competitive a. Foreign molecules bind to the active site & prevents real reactants from entering => no reaction 2) Non‐competitive a. Foreign molecule binds to enzyme away from active site. That can change the shape of the active site => no reaction 3) Allosteric inhibition a. Usually only with quaternary proteins (enzymes) b. Normal, not foreign, regular cell molecules c. deactivate/activate an enzyme by binding to it… not at the active site
Cells 1) Prokaryotes (bacteria) a. Plasma membrane, DNA (no nucleus), ribosomes, enzymes, cell wall * i. *prokaryotic cell wall is made of peptidoglycan 2) Eukaryotes Cells build polypepties Organelles 1)...