Ancient Civilizations Exam Contents

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CHW3M Grade 11 Ancient Civilizations Exam
Course Name: World History to the 16th Century
Course Code: CHW3M
Date:
Time:2 hours
Teacher:L. Melia-Villani

Structure:
Part A: True/False, Multiple Choice – 46 marks: Knowledge/Understanding

Part B: Artefacts: choose 3 of 5: 30 marks: each question is worth 10 marks: 5 marks=thinking, 5 marks=application

Part C: Historical Figures: 20 marks: choose 2 of 9: each question is worth 10 marks: 5 marks=thinking, 5 marks=communication.

Part D: Essay: 25 marks: One “all-encompassing” question on the course: 25 marks: 15 marks=application, 10 marks=communication

**The following is a list of items to review in studying for your final exam. In addition to the following items, you should be sure to review your notes, tests and assignments in order to prepare for your final exam.** Human Origins/ Characteristics of a Civilization

Human Evolution Timeline
Ardipithicus ramidus—–4.4 mya
Australopithecus anamensis —–4.1 mya
Australopithecus afarensis —–3.18 mya
Australopithecus africanus —–3 mya
Homo habilis —–2.5 mya
Homo erectus —–2 mya
Homo sapiens —–230,000-450,000 years ago
Homo sapiens sapiens —–40,000 years ago

Homo habilis-2.5 mya
-bridge between Afarensis and the Paleolithic Age
-larger brain
-teeth like modern humans
-first to use stone tools and fire

Neanderthals- 23,000-30,000 years ago
* type of Homo sapien
* traveled from Africa to Central Asia and the Middle East * might have been wiped out by Homo sapiens sapiens

Life
* hunters and gatherers
* short life expectancy
* group hunting
* tools
* religion
* buried and mourned dead
Characteristics
* broad noses
* thick eyebrow ridges
* short limbs, stocky and powerful bodies

Lucy-Australopithecus afarensis
* 3.18 mya
* common ancestor of humans

Great Leap Forward
* advances in tech, art, and culture
* creativity and planning
* mostly modern anatomy
* pillars of civilization (fire, speech, tool making, hunting, social organization)

Characteristics of a Civilization
1. Centralized Government
* laws
* leaders
2. Agricultural Intensification
* irrigation
* dikes reclaimed land
* calendar
* increase in agricultural productivity
* leisure time
3. Specialization in Occupations
* enough food let people pursue other activities
* industries and trade (baker)

4. Class Structure
* equality
* no equal access to land
* nobility controlled government

5. Merchants and Trade
* trade of manufactured goods
* shops and markets
* bartering more complex
* long distance trade
6. Development of Science and Writing
* inventions
* early writing for ownership of goods
* important for laws and religion
7. Religion
* Belief in the afterlife
* early civilizations had a link between government and religion

Mesopotamia
Cuneiform
-Mesopotamia’s greatest contribution to western civilization -transmission of knowledge, the codification of laws, records to facilitate farming and trade -circa 3500BCE
-spread to Persia and Egypt
-helped civilizations grow
-carved on wet clay tablets
-wedged shaped carvings
Code of Hammurabi
-first law code
-282 laws
-in cuneiform
 
Ziggurats
-home for gods when on earth
-temple
-daily offerings of food
Fertile Crescent
-the land between the rivers
-many early civ’s started here
-excellent farming conditions

Egypt
Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV)
-1352-1336 BCE
-change old ways
-built a new capital
-changed religion, making Aton, the sun god, the one true god Hatshepsut
-1479-1457 BCE
-great woman leader, but dressed like a man
-peaceful reign
-expanded trade and the arts
Ka
-spiritual duplicate
-represented as a heart
-stayed in tomb and needed food, clothes, etc.

Ma’at
-concept/personification of truth/law/justice
-feather weighed against ma’at to...
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