An Overview of Anatomy
Exercise 1: Anatomical Position
Explain why it is important to have a universally accepted anatomical position when studying the structure of humans. Having a universally accepted anatomical positional is important to avoid confusion. It creates a reference point so that no matter language or background of different people, they can still communicate efficiently.
Exercise 2: Surface Anatomy
Review Figure 3. Complete the table by placing each letter from the figure next to its corresponding body landmark.
Mr. Shmelgenbelcher has had a rough day. He woke up with a pain in his cervical region. He fell off his bike and bruised his crural region. He pulled a muscle in his inguinal region and was whacked by a revolving door in his scapular region. Describe where each of these areas of the body is located on poor Mr. Shmelgenbelcher.
The cervical region is his neck. The crural region is on the leg, between the knee cap and the ankle. He pulled a muscle in the inguinal region, which is the groin. He was whacked by a revolving door in his shoulder blade area, which is the scapular region.
Exercise 3: Body Orientation
Using the directional terms you learned in Exercise 3, fill in the following blanks
a. The nose is ___medial________ to the ears.
b. The elbow is __distal__to the shoulder and _proximal__to the wrist. c. The heart is ventral__ to the spine.
d. The stomach is inferior to the ribs.
e. The pinky finger is __medial____ to the thumb.
f. Muscles are superficial_ to your skeleton.
g. The mouth is inferior__ and ventral_ to the ears.
h. The brain is superior___ to the spinal cord.
Which of the following organs would not be visible if you cut the body in a mid-sagittal section? Explain below.
The kidneys would not be visible if you were to cut the body in a mid-sagittal section. Mid-sagittal runs vertically, cutting the body into left and right sections. The brain, stomach and heart all lie along the midline of the body so you would be able to see those, but the kidneys lie too far away from the midline to be viewed this way.
Exercise 5: Body Cavities
What organs are found in the pelvic cavity? Urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum.
If the doctor presses on the right hypochondriac region, what organ is the doctor likely pressing on? Liver
Describe what is found in the dorsal body cavity. Within the dorsal cavity there is the cranial cavity which contains the brain, and the vertebral cavity with contains the spinal cord.
What two body cavities may be invaded by a brain tumor? Cranial and Vertebral
Exercise 6: Organ Systems
Complete the following table by filling in the missing system name, major organs, or functions.
Organ System|Major Organs|Functions|
Respiratory|Nasal Passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs|Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.| 2.
Reproductive|Penis, testis, scrotum, prostate gland, ductus deferens |Provides cells to perpetuate the species| 3.
Lymphatic/Immunity|Red bone marrow, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, Thoracic duct, Spleen, Lymph nodes|Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.| 4.
Endocrine|Pituitary, thymus, thyroid, adrenal glands, testes, ovaries|Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient by body cells.| 5.
Digestive|Oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach,...
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