Adolescence Seminar 1 Notes

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SEMINAR 1 – STUDY GUIDE
Adolescence Defined pg8
Depends on the factors considered:
Physical and sexual development
Family relationships
Educational rules
Social customs
Legal codeS
STAGES
Early – 11 to 14 years -
Middle – 15 to 18 years
Late – 19-22 years
HISTORY
Ancient Greece and Rome
Preindustrial Europe
18th Century Europe
United States Industrialization
20th Century United States
Current Teens

GLOBALIZATION
Less Developed Countries
Developed Countries
Trends

FUTURE
Cycle of social changes
Impact of education
Urbanization
HIV/AIDS

THEORY
Biological theory
G. Stanley Hall
Psychoanalytic theories
Sigmund Freud
Anna Freud
Erik Erikson

COGNITIVE THEORIES
Piaget – cognitive stages
Vygotsky – Social relationships
Information Processing – Problem solving

LEARNING & CONDITIONING THEORY
Focus on external consequences of actions versus

Social Cognitive theory – focus on role of learning by watching others

SOCIAL & ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES
Margaret Mead
Ruth Benedict
Focus on how adolescence is similar and different across cultures and societies

SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES
Never final and complete
Requires an open mind
Systematic and objective
Hypothesis testing

TOOLS
Representative sample
Generalization
Research approaches
Historical
Ethnographic
Naturalistic observation
Case studies
Surveys
Interviews

CORRELATIONAL STUDIES
How two or more characteristics are related
Positive correlation – factors move in same direction
Negative correlation – factors move in opposite direction Does not prove cause

EXPERIMENT
Independent variable is manipulated or changed.
Corresponding change in dependent is observed or measured. Can show a cause and effect relationship

STUDYING CHANGE OVER TIME
Cross-sectional research
Longitudinal studies
Sequential studies

ISSUES IN RESEARCH
Cohort effect
Groups underrepresented in studies
Ingroup bias
Vast amount of information must be judged in terms of worth, reliability, and importance. Reliable sources
Statistical significance
Generalization
Correlation does not prove causation

How are normative transitions different from idiosyncratic transitions? Pg. 8

What are the three phases of adolescence and how are they linked to different tasks or goals? Pg. 9 Early Adolescence 11-14 rapid & dramatics changes; involve adapting to these changes & the new social roles they; as well as accepting & learning to use one’s new physique Middle – focus shifts to achieving psychological independence from parents, developing the ability to close friendships, and working toward meaningful intimate, sexual relationships. Late – preparing for marriage and family life, considering career, and acquiring a mature set of values Inventionism – view that the concept of adolescence was promoted in early 20th century as a way of setting off young people from the adult world. It sees laws that banned child labor & established education as aimed at deliberately setting young people apart from the adult world in a new way. Goal was to keep them dependent and prevent them from competing with adults for jobs. Pg. 9bottom

What are the major similarities and differences between adolescence in earlier times and today? Pg. 10 Athens – boys trained in grammar, music and gymnastics; 18yrs old ephebes; become citizens & trained in military. Girls educated at home to manage household Plato, Aristotle, children should study reading & writing from ages 7-10; literature 10-13, music from 13-16 Rome – Boys 14 began wearing toga of men, after yr of military training became men. Girls could marry at age 12, never became adults Preindustrial...
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