* Long Reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715)
Cardinal Jules Mazarin- student of Cardinal Richelieu and the chief minister of Anne of Austria; stooped rebellions of peasants and city-dwellers to strengthen the authority of the monarchy. Anne of Austria- mother of Louis XIV, ruled for him because he was 5 years old then. Divine Right- the power of a king came from God and no subject will dare to question it. * It is God who establishes kings… Princes thus act as ministers of God and [are] His lieutenants on earth. It is through them that He rules… That is why… the royal throne is not the throne of a man but the throne of God Himself…. It appears from this that the person of kings is sacred, and to move against them is sacrilege… ( Bishop Jacques Benigne Boussuet)
“L’etat, c’est moi”- The sate- it is I- King Louis XIV of France
“Sun King”- Louis XIV wanted to call himself as ‘sun king’ comparing himself to the Greek god Apollo, which gives life to all things and god of peace and arts.
Versailles- in 1682, the Royal Court moved to Versailles palace, it took more than 2o years to build it. It is the symbol of the absolute monarchy in France.
Jean Baptiste Colbert- finance minister of Louis XIV, a strong advocate of mercantilism policy in France; established French colonies to compete with the leading trading countries; invited foreign artisans to teach French workers.
Huguenots- French Protestants who were persecuted by Louis XIV because of non-tolerance of religions. Edict of Nantes- granted the Huguenots a large measure of religious freedom, equal treatment under the law, and equal opportunity to hold positions in the government; signed by Henry IV but repealed by Louis XIV. War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713)- the most destructive war when Louis XIV’s policies threaten the balance of powers in Europe; often called as the First World War because most of the leading countries in Europe were involved....