9th Grade Notes, China.

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Joseph Henry-Penrose - World Cultures Chinese Notes.

Religions In China
Christianity
Active in asia for centuries
Philippines almost entirely christian
Very influential with millions of followers
Korea most influenced
Pacific islands largely committed to christian tradition

Shito
Emerged in earliest period of Japanese history
Originally animalistic religion that gave human form to various gods that rule the forces of nature Similar traditions in southeast asia and african groups
puts emphasis on “awe”
sun goddess, Amaterasu, sent her decedents to further create the japanese islands loosely organized
stayed dormant for centuries
revival in 19th century

Islam
Large communities found in south asia and western china
emerged in the 7th century
most theology shared with judaism and christianity
the holy text is the Qur’an. It has 114 chapters

Confucianism
Mose social philosophy than religion
founder not interested in “supernatural” stuff
developed a new theory of nobility based on “merit” rather than birth Merit = single-mined commitment to “nurturing” a “truly noble” heart. emphasis on education to elevate the human soul
later more emphasis on virtue from the study of various writings known as the 5 classics China was influenced heavily by this movement

Buddhism
One of the strongest religions throughout east and southeast asia Uses karma
best reward is “Nirvana” A place of individual non-existence Sri-lanka converted in 3rd BC
Almost every country has their own buddhist sects
Mahayana Buddhism became widespread in china in the first centuries of the modern era influenced the lives of Chinese
tibet - tentrism heavily influenced by Hinduism
still exists in eastern tibet but mostly replaced by:
lanmaism - Dalai Lama is the leader

Naturism
Elaborate intellectual system
yin, yang & qi (chi)
Understanding Yin and Yang is crucial
qi is said to run through the body and be vital to good health

Daoism (Taoism)
Formed at the same time as confucianism
more of a philosophy
more individual
more about wisdom
3-4000 years old


East Asians, Chinese, Japanese and koreans are largely made up of “mongoloid” racial communities All divided by language heritage
Southeast asia is very diverse

Western pacific islands are cut into three groups
polynesian
melanesian
Micronesian

More than 100 languages spoken between them

Chinese civilization is over 4000 years old
Xia dynasty = 2205 bce - 1766 bce (the oldest)
Shang dynasty = 1766 bce - 1045 bc-most advanced bronze work
-started Chinese writing style
-very bloodthirsty
Zhou dynasty =western - 1045 - 770bc

The middle dynasties
china reunited by the sui and tang dynasties after 581
under suppression
buddhism reached hight of popularity
Confucianism was modified in 1200 into neo-Confucianism
country ruled by song (or sung) dynasty

The Mandate of Heaven
THE most important political theory in China's history
heaven blesses the emperor to rule with Virtue
Virtue means to rule selflessly
The emperor is the son of heaven
The theory is over 3000 years old
shifts in the mandate of heaven are signaled by natural disasters and wars

Zhou Dynasty
Western and eastern Zhou
came up with the mandate of heaven
Spring & autumn period (eastern Zhou) were peace and growth because of agricultural developments War & states period (East) -Warlords ruled over localities
-warlords started fighting to see who would replace the Zhou
-Sun Tzu, one of China’s most important writers was a general. He wrote “The art of War” Qin Dynasty
Lasted 14 years
Not Virtuous
Started building the great wall of china

Han Dynasty
Very important
Gave name to Chinese ethnicity
Developed governmental bureaucracy
The records of the grand historian by sina Quan. It was a few thousand years of Chinese history Wang Mon in charge from 8-25 AD. He was a commoner & became an emperor. the empire...
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