Psychology- the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and the profession that applies accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
1. Put a check mark by each statement that is true regarding psychology. _____ Psychologists study human behavior.
_____ Psychologists study animal behavior.
_____ Psychologists study emotions and mental processes.
_____ Psychology and "common sense" lead to the same conclusions about behavior and mental processes. _____ Psychology is not a science.
Describe the major schools of thought and theoretical perspectives in psychology. Key Terms
1. Fill in the chart below.
School of Thought
| Important Theorist(s)
| Main Ideas
| Ivan Pavlov, B.F Skinner, John B Watson,
| Behaviorism suggests that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes rather than by internal forces.
| Psychoanalytic Theory
| a theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of the behavior
| a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
| Evolutionary psychology
| theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations.
| Biological perspective
| a psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
Describe the ways in which increased interest in cultural variables has changed the field of psychology.
1. Give two reasons why psychological researchers strive to study previously unrepresented groups.
Define the scientific approach, and explain how it is used in psychology.
1. What is the main purpose of the scientific approach?
The main purpose of the scientific approach is to test ideas.
2. The steps of the scientific approach are (1) formulate a hypothesis, (2) design a study, (3) collect data, (4) analyze data and draw conclusions, and (5) report findings. Identify the step associated with each of the following activities:
3) Dr. Lopez noted "absent" or "present" by each student's name on his class roll at each class meeting. He recorded students' exam scores on his roll sheet as well. 1) Dr. Lopez predicted that students who consistently attend class get higher grades than those who are absent more often. 5) Dr. Lopez published the results of his study in the Journal of Community College Teaching. 4) Dr. Lopez calculated the correlation between his students' rates of absence and their exam scores and found that the two variables were positively associated. 2) Dr. Lopez planned to track students' attendance and exam scores and to correlate these two variables at the end of the semester. 4) Dr. Lopez inferred that the data he collected supported his hypothesis regarding the relationship between attendance and exam scores.
Describe experiments, state their advantages and disadvantages, and distinguish between independent and dependent variables.
1. What is the primary advantage of the experimental method? It permits conclusions about cause and effect relationships between variables.
2. Read the scenario and answer the questions that follow it.
In a laboratory...
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