Personality Develops Gradually
Can be influenced
Can be reinforced Personalities develop over time and are complicated. They are influenced by many different things including the external environment, reinforcement and conditioning.
Is the ego always caught in the middle? Basically yes, and the pressures on it can be intense. In addition to meeting the conflicting demands of the id and superego, the overworked ego must deal with external reality. According to Freud, you feel anxiety when your ego is threatened or overwhelmed. Impulses from the id cause neurotic anxiety when the ego can barely keep them under control. Threats of punishment from the superego cause moral anxiety. Each person develops habitual ways of calming these anxieties, and many resort to using ego-defense mechanisms to lessen internal conflicts. Defense mechanisms are mental processes that deny, distort, or otherwise block out sources of threat and anxiety.
Carl Jung (1875–1961)
Like Freud, Jung called the conscious part of the personality the ego. However, he further noted that a persona, or “mask,” exists between the ego and the outside world. The persona is the “public self” presented to others. It is most apparent when we adopt particular roles or hide our deeper feelings. 12.4.4 Carl Rogers viewed the self as an entity that emerges from personal experience. We tend to become aware of experiences that match our self-image, and exclude those that are incongruent with it.
12.4.5 The incongruent person has a highly unrealistic selfimageand/or a mismatch between the self-image and the ideal self. The congruent or fully functioning person is flexible and open to experiences and feelings. Jung believed that, from the