The reactor

Topics: Maleic acid, Maleic anhydride Pages: 9 (1916 words) Published: February 20, 2014
1. Introduction
The dominant end use of Maleic anhydride (MA) is in the production of unsaturated polyester resins. These laminating resins, which have high structural strength and good dielectric properties, have a variety of applications in automobile bodies, building panels, molded boats, chemical storage tanks, lightweight pipe, machinery housings and furniture. Other end products are fumaric acid, agricultural chemicals, alkyd resins, lubricants, copolymers, plastics, succinic acid, surface active agents, and more. In the United States, one plant uses only n-butane and another uses n-butane for 20% of its feedstock, but the primary raw material used in the production of Maleic Anhydride is benzene. The Maleic Anhydride industry is converting old benzene plants and building new plants to use n-butane. Maleic Anhydride also is a byproduct of the production of phthalic anhydride. It is a solid at room temperature but is a liquid or gas during production. It is a strong irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory system. Background

Maleic anhydride is a chemical intermediate that is used to produce food acids, resins, surface coatings, lubricant additives and agricultural chemicals. This product manufactured globally via a range of different processing routes which may differ in the feedstock utilized, reaction conditions, types of catalyst, and product recovery and purification methods. Aim

The aim of the report is to determine the feasibility of constructing a maleic anhydride plant to manufacture 15000tons/year of this product. The work done was to calculate the best operating temperature for the production which will give us the maximum amount of gross profit.  2. Literature Review

Maleic anhydride was first commercially produced in the early 1930s by the Vapor-phase oxidation of benzene. The use of benzene as a feedstock for the production of Maleic anhydride was dominant in the world market well into the 1980s. Several processes have been used for the production of Maleic anhydride from benzene with the most common one from Scientific Design. Small amounts of Maleic acid are produced as a by-product in production of Phthalic anhydride . This can be converted to either Maleic anhydride or fumaric acid. Benzene, although easily oxidized to maleic anhydride with high selectivity, is an inherently inefficient feedstock since two excess carbon atoms are present in the raw material. Various C4 compounds have been evaluated as raw material substitutes for benzene in the production of maleic anhydride. Fixed- bed and fluid-bed processes for production of maleic anhydride from the isotopes of butane present in mixed C4 streams have been practiced commercially. None of these processes are currently in being operated. The rapid increase in the benzene price and the recognition of benzene being classified as a hazardous product intensified the search for alternative process technology in the United States and around the world. After certain investigations and tests of benzene affecting the environment were conducted, this led to the first commercial production of maleic anhydride from butane at Monsanto's J. F. Queenly plant in 1974. By the early 1980s, the conversion of the U.S. Maleic anhydride manufacturing capacity from benzene to butane feedstock was well under way using catalysts developed by Monsanto, Denka, and Halcon. The factor that inhibited the conversion of the installed benzene-based capacity was that early butane-based catalysts were not active and selective enough to allow the conversion of benzene-based plant without significant loss of nameplate capacity. In 1983, Monsanto started up the world's first butane-to-Maleic anhydride plant, incorporating an energy efficient solvent-based product collection and refining system. This plant was the world's largest Maleic anhydride production facility in 1983 at 59,000t/yr capacity, and through rapid advances in catalyst technology has been...

References: Wankat, P., Equilibrium Staged Separation Processes, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, (1988)
Harriot, P., Chemical reactor design, Marcel Dekker, Incorporated, USA (2002).
Nexant ChemSystems Reports, Maleic anhydride process evaluation (2005).
Yang, W-C., Handbook of fluidization and fluid particle systems, Marcel Dekker, USA (2003).
Articles from anhydride production, USA 2004
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