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IS202 World History and Civilization

Introduction Chapter

I. Key Term:
1. Geography: is the study of people, their environment and their resources.
2. Latitude: line on a map or globe measure distance north and south of Equator.
3. Longitude: lines measure distance east and west of the Prime Meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England. Or the lines to measure in degree.
4. Prehistory: the history before history.
5. Archaeologist: scientists who find and analyze objects left by early people.
6. Artifact: the objects that left by early people include anything shaped by human beings, such as tools, pottery, and weapons.
7. Anthropologist: scientists who study the way people organize the societies.
8. Fossil: evidence of plant or animal life preserved in rock.
9. Polytheistic: believe in more religion.
10. Theocracy: the form of government in which priests serve as kings .
11. Artisan: a person who is skilled at making things by hand.
12. Barter economy: the system of exchanging one set of goods or services for another.
13. Scribe: a young man who mastered the difficult task of learning to read and write.
14. Culture: the customs, ideas and ways of life of a group of people.

II. Discussion Questions:
1. The five themes to understand geography are:
Location: basically where something is
Place: the term place refers to the physical and human characteristics of a specific location.
Interactions between people and their environment
Movement: the earliest people moved from one place to another in search of food or a place to live
Regions: a region might be defined by its physical characteristics.
2. There are 3 kinds of map projections:
Interrupted Projection correct geographic shape/size it cannot be used to measure the distance across the water
Mercator Projection
Show the accurate direction directions of north, south, east and west.
It does not show the geographic shape and size of land areas far away from the Equator.
Molleweide Projection
Show the accurate of land and water area
The shapes and land areas are distorted
3. Scientists study pre-history by two sources: written records: inscription, letters, diaries, and newspapers
Unwritten records: buildings, pottery, bones, and other objects used by early people.
4. Archaeologists search for evidence about early people by finding and analyzing the objects that left by the early people.
5. Three part task of archaeologists are:
Identify site/area where early people lived
Excavate or dig to uncover artifacts
Analyze those artifacts and draw conclusions about the people who made them
6. There are still so many unanswered questions about prehistory because much evidence has been destroyed.
7. The Paleolithic people was learning to control fire because fire provided light and warmth, protection against wild animals, and heat for cooking food.
8. Two ways in which the agricultural revolution affected the way people lived are: people changed from hunting and gathering food to growing food
They had not need to move in search of food, started to build home, villages.
9. The metals that late Neolithic people begin to use are the wheel cart, use stone for tools and weapons, they first used copper, then discovered that copper combined with tin formed a harder mental, called Bronze.
10. The reason why the farmers in river valleys able to produce a surplus of foods are the fertile soil, flood, soil rich in mineral, moisture and good climate.
11. The people of early civilizations develop writing because characteristics included complex religions and governments, specialized skills and occupations, social classes find method of keeping records.

IS202 World History and Civilization

Chapter I: Ancient Egypt (7,000BC- 30BC)

I. Vocabulary:
1. Papyrus: a kind of plant that can use to product paper.
2. Delta: a land form that is formed at the mouth of river, where the river flows into the sea Or a triangle-shaped area of marshy flatlands.
3. Cataract: large waterfalls or rapids
4. Hieroglyphics: a system of writing
5. Pictogram: picture of an object.
6. Ídeogram: a picture that symbolizes an idea or action.
7. Dynasty: a kingdom, powerful kingdom in the same family
8. Pharaoh: great house, god, son of the god.
9. Empire: a group of countries under a single authority
10. Monotheism : believe in only one god.

II. Matching
1. Oriris: Egyptian god of the Nile
2. Hatshepsut: queen who ruled Egypt for 22 years during the New kingdom
3. Giza: site of three great pyramids
4. Akenaton: pharaoh who tried to change traditional religious practice
5. Sinai: peninsula connecting Epypt to western Asia

III. Comprehension Question:
1. Three reasons for the importance of the Nile river in Egyptian life: brings valuable moisture to the parched land, the rich soil replenished the farmland each year, formed a delta, water supply and predictable floods helped to unite the villages along its banks, it served as a major highway, connecting upper Egypt in the south to lower Egypt in the north the Nile touched people’s lives in many other ways.
It provided river wildlife, which Egyptians hunted for food and sport.
Papyrus growing along the river
2. The need to keep records of religious rituals and temple property probably led Egyptian priests to develop a system of writing.
3. List one important development that occurred during the three kingdom:
The old kingdom:
Massive labor force/suffering heavy taxes for the massive project construction
The middle kingdom: allowed common people to do mummification draining system and farmland canal connecting to Nile to Red sea for trade and transportation huge temples
The New kingdom
Empire age under one ruler territorial expansionism tributes/taxes further trades with other civilizations
4. Akenaton tried to change the religious practices of the Egyptians by wanted Egyptians to worship only the god Aton, whose symbol was the sun disk, after ordering the priests to stop worshipping other gods and to remove these god’s names from the temples, he changed his own name from Amentotep to Akenaton. It goes well with Aton.
5. The priests hold such a high position in Egyptian society because Egyptian life revolved around religion, Egyptians believed that the gods, who controlled the universe, required constant attention, and only the priests knew how to please, sacrifices and communicated to the gods. Moreover, priests conducted daily sacrifices to the gods, cast spells to make the land fertile, and recited prayers to help souls of the dead reach the afterlife.
6. The women in ancient Egypt had rights to: buy and sell property seek divorce claim property inherited through female line play role as wife and mother ( higher status when they had children )
7. The scribes were very necessary to an efficient government because they kept records of taxes and expenses, they noted the heroic deeds of pharaohs as well as the ordinary events of daily life, such as births , marriages, and deaths. A scribes who served a powerful noble or pharaoh might become rich, acquire great influence, or be appointed to an official position himself.
8. The Egyptians made many practical advances in mathematics and the sciences. The farmers devised methods of surveying land out necessity, when annual The Nile’s floods washed away boundary makers, farmers had to remeasure or survey their fields. The need to survey land led to the development of mathematics, particularly geometry.

IS202 World History and Civilization

Chapter II: Ancient Middle East ( 4,500 BC – 331 BC )

I. Vocabulary:
1. City-state: a large town or city and the surrounding countryside cooperate for mutual defense.
2. Ziggurat: the home or temple of the of the city
3. Cuneiform: the writing made up of wedge-like shapes
4. Satrapy: the province that the Persian empire decided.
5. Money Economy: an economic system based on money rather than barter.
6. Covenant: binding agreement.

II. Filling in the blank:
1. The Hebrews viewed their gods as friendly and helpful.
2. Many peoples of the ancient Middle East adopted Cuneiform writing.
3. Under the code of Hammurabi, the penalty for every crime was death.
4. The Assyrians destroyed the records of earlier civilizations.
5. Zoroaster believed the forces of evil would defeat the forces of good.
6. The Phoenician improved the alphabet by using symbols to present sounds.
7. The Sumerians were polytheistic.

III. Comprehension questions:
1. Two results of the movement of peoples across the Fertile crescent are: the region was frequently overrun by invaders the diversity of the people living in the Fertile Crescent made it difficult to unite the area under a single ruler.
2. The Sumerian view of an afterlife differ from the Egyptian view, in Egypt, the favorable climate of the Nile valley allowed the people to enjoy life and see their gods as kindly forces. By contrast, fear of natural disasters and invasions probably contributed to the Sumerian’s gloomy outlook on life. They believed that the gods punished them by sending floods or famine. This gloomy outlook colored their belief about the afterlife.
3. The four contributions the Sumerians made to civilization are: writing system began as pictograms and ideogram
Sumerians were the first person known to use a wheel
Sumerian were the first to use arches, columns, ramps, and inclined walk they also developed an accurate 12-month calendar to keep track of the seasons.
4. Hammurabi drew up a law code because he purposed was to cause justice to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil, to prevent the strong from oppressing the weak, and to further the welfare of the people.
The code contained 282 laws arranged under headings such as trade, family, labor, real estate, and personal property.
5. Assyrians organize their empire by: the empire was divided into provinces, each ruled by a governor responsible to the king who had absolute power built roads to speed the movement of their army from the capital to the provinces. the adopted groups of troublesome people to remote parts of the empire where they could not organize rebellions
The Assyrian stored a vast collection of over 22,000 clay tablets written in the cuneiform of Sumer and Babylon.
6. According to Zoroaster, the two forces at war in the world were good and evil.
7. The Phoenicians earned the name “carriers of civilization” for their role in spreading the culture of the ancient world. Though trade and colonization, they introduced the achievements of Mesopotamia and Egypt to the less-advanced peoples of the western Mediterranean. They also made their own contribution by improving the alphabet.
8. The code of Hammurabi set the death penalty for many minor offenses, were more severe, while as, Hebrew law generally held human life in greater respect leaving the ultimate judgment and punishment in God.

IS202 World History and Civilization

Chapter III: Ancient India and China ( 2500 BC – 256 BC )

I. Vocabulary
1. Monsoon: the chief feature of the Indian climate, a seasonal wind.
2. Tribe: a group or groups of related families who recognize a common ancestor, speak the same language, and share the same traditions and beliefs.
3. Rajah: elected chief, served as the leader in war.
4. Reincarnation: the belief in rebirth of the soul in another bodily form.
5. Extended family: a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married sons, and the sons’ wives and children.
6. Caste: social groups based on birth.
7. Loess: winter winds and river flood waters deposit a fine yellow soil in the Yellow River valley
8. Oracle Bone: the way that the priest interpreted the cracks and used the bones for telling the future of a person
9. Dynastic Cycle: the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties that were referred by the historians.
10. Bureaucracy: a system of organizing government by departments or bureaus.

II. Comprehension Question:
1. Geographical region was the home of first Indian civilization because of the Himalaya Mountains that separates India from the rest of Asia and it is surrounded on three sides by water, the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Bay of Bengal.
2. The summer monsoon important to the people of India because from June until September, the summer monsoon blows from the southwest, picking up moisture over the Indian Ocean and dropping torrential rains on the coast and on the northern plain.
3. The evidences that suggest the Indus valley cities were the result of careful planning are:
Wide, straight streets divide residential areas into square city blocks houses, granaries, public halls, and shops had extensive sewer systems walled fortresses with towers provided protection
4. Compare the responsibilities of the rajah and the village headmen: rajah served as the leader in the war and they governed the tribe or cities. whereas, the village headmen worked with a village council to settle disputes, he also made sure that irrigation were built and canal were maintained.
5. In Upanishad, priest introduced the belief in rebirth of soul in another bodily.
6. The four main classes in Aryan society are :
Kshatriya ( warriors )
Brahmans ( priest)
Vaisya ( land owners, merchants, and herders )
Sudras ( servants and peasant tied to the land )
7. Two factors that limited outside influence on Chinese civilization are :
The geographic barriers and great distances limited contact between China and other centers of civilizations
China considered themselves living in the center of the world, they believed that they are unique.
8. The Yellow River have called “ The River of Sorrows” because its floods have caused much death and destruction.
9. a. Geographic barrier helped isolate both India and China form other part of the world, as people who lived in both country could not have much trade or travel across the country because it has been blocked by the natural barrier.
b. both countries could contacted with the civilization by traveling across the Ocean, by Pacific ocean and Indian Ocean.
10. The Chinese writing difficult to learn because the Chinese used pictograms or drawings of objects to created their letters. Later, they added ideograms, symbols that expressed ideas such as wisdom or unity. Under Shang, Chinese writing included over 3,000 symbols or characters and it increased to over 50,000 and only the wealthy had the time and money to learn to read and write it.
11. To justify their seizure of power from the Shang, the Chou developed the idea of the “Mandate of Heaven “, this dynasty enjoyed heaven’s blessing only as long as it governed wisely and justly. If a ruler was lazy, cruel, or corrupt, heaven withdrew the mandate, or right to rule.
12. The Chou dynasty declined because of the reasons below:
Chou dynasty was a feudal system dynasty that emerged in China. Chou controlled more territory than the Shang had, so the kings allowed powerful nobles to govern large parts of the kingdom. In exchange, the nobles owned loyalty, military service, and tribute to the king. when Chou strength decline, powerful lords carved out independent states and expanded north into Manchuria and south into the Yangtze Valley. Between 771BC to 256BC, weak Chou rulers could not stop warfare among hundreds of feudal states.
12. The ground that made up the ruling class in Chou China are farmer, soldier, and craftsmen which paid parts of their harvests/incomes to the king and nobles, and they served as foot soldiers and built royal palaces, tombs and temples.
13. The economic problems that Chinese peasants face was when the Chinese began to use metal coins, trade grew even faster. This money economy helped the rich but not the poor. Merchants made huge profits by buying grain and then selling it in times of famine for high prices. During famines, peasants had to borrow money to grain to survive.

IS202 World History and Civilization

Chapter IV: The Heritage of Ancient Greece ( 2000BC- 133BC )
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I. Vocabulary:
1. Fresco: wall paintings, wall decorating.
2. Polis: a city-state, independent city state
3. Acropolis: hilltop fortress
4. Monarchy: government headed by a king
5. Aristocracy: governments by a privileged minority or upper class, replaced the monarchy.
6. Phalanx: a massive formation of heavily armed foot soldier, standing shoulder to shoulder.
7. Tyranny: government by an individual, or tyrant who seizes power by force.
8. Democracy: government by the citizens, emerged.
9. Archon: officials
10. Ostracism: the temporary exile of a citizen from the city
11. Helot: the slaves
12. Ephor: the assembly elected five overseers
13. Tragedy: dramas that focused on the sufferings of a major character and usually ended in disaster.
14. Comedy: Greek comedy originated in celebrations honoring Dionysus
15. Lyric Poem: the poet expresses his or her emotions or thoughts
16. Philosopher: Greek thinkers were intensively curious about the world and the place of people in it
17. Socratic Method : a conversational question-and answer technique
18. Hellenistic civilization: a rich new culture/ a blend of eastern and western influences, including Persians, Egyptians, Indian and Greek.

II. Matching
1. Homer: Poet who wrote Iliad
2. Pericles: Athenian leader during its golden age
3. Plato: philosopher who set up the Academy
4. Archimedes: Inventor of the double pulley
5. Thucydides: Historian who wrote history of the Peloponnesian Wars

III. Comprehension Question:
1. Two ways in which geography affected the early Greeks are:
Greece is a mountainous peninsula that juts into the eastern Mediterranean. Because of the rugged terrain, only quarter of the land can be farmed so that Greeks turned to fishing and trading.
In addition, this terrain also limited transportation and communication, and made country difficult to unite. Thus, Greeks developed small, separate, and independence community, and fiercely resisted outside interference
2. The Achaeans adopt from Minoan Civilization: riches from trade and war allowed Achaean rulers to fill their palaces and tombs with gold treasures built on the achievements of Minoan civilization artisans at Mycenae reproduced Minoan designs on jewelry, pottery, and tools
The Achaeans also learned writing from the Minoans
3. The effects of the expansion of trade in Greek world after 750BC:
Greek adopted the Phoenician alphabet
Greek thinkers began to put traditional ideas to test the reasons and logic that contributions in philosophy and science
Greek village prospered grow into town that gradually developed into independent city-state
4. Explain the three steps by which Athens became more democratic:
In 621 BC, the archons of Athens appointed Draco, a noble to draw up a written cod of law. They felt that the law could prevent war. Draco made the law public and required that judges apply the law to all classes. Thus, his code failed to satisfy the demands of most Athenians, and violent still disrupted the city.
In 594 BC, Solon, a well-educated leader of Athens, abolished debt slavery and freed citizens who were forced into slavery, and also limited the amount of land. Moreover, he stopped the sale of grain abroad in order to increase the food supply and keep prices lower. Also, the citizens had right to approve government decision making. However, landless citizens could not hold many official positions, and families freed from debt slavery still could not afford to buy land. Thus, landowning nobles still dominated Athenian government.
In 508 BC, Cleisthenes made Athenian Assembly the lawmaking body where allowed citizens to share ideas. He also gave citizenship to immigrants and former slaves, and he tried to extend the power of citizens by introducing the idea of ostracism, which was a temporary exile of a citizen from the city if that person received more than 600 votes to banish from Athens for 10 years.
5. The Spartans felt that it is a need for a strong military state because they wanted to prevent the uprising of the slaves and to prevent the invading of the other rulers.
6. Direct democracy is the democratic system in which all citizens had the right to attend the Assembly and cast a vote.
Indirect democracy was a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people.
7. The reasons that led to the Persian Wars were:
Miletus led the Greek cities of Asia Minor against the powerful Persian Empire, despite the aid from Athens, the rebel cities were crushed by the Persians in 493BC.
In 490BC, Darius launched an attack across the Aegean Sea, when the main Persian force landed near the plain of Marathon, Athens asked for help, but it received little support. Nevertheless, the outnumbered Athenians won a stunning victory over the Persians.
Two result of these wars were”
Athens created an anti-Persian league, which it then turned into an empire allow the Greek city-state to go back to fighting each other.
Persian agreed to stay out of the Greek world in the Eastern Mediterranean, and after the war Athens turned the anti-Persian league into an empire for its own benefit.
8. The democratic features of Athenian government are:
Citizens had time for public service largely because they owned slaves who worked their land and ran their businesses. Most residents of Athens were not citizens and had no say in government
Athenian democracy limited many Greeks who flocked to Athens from other cities were considered foreigners and were usually denied citizenship.
9. The Peloponnesian Wars have on Athens effected: cost Athens it navy, empire and for a time its democratic form of government remained the cultural center of Greece, but never regained the powere it had enjoyed during its golden age.
10. The two ways that religion was connected to daily life in Greece are:
The Greeks loved to hear stories about their many gods and goddesses many Greeks were more interested in this life than in an afterlife and took part in religious festivals and contributed to the building of the temples that graced every Greek city-state.
11. Socrates think people should live by the use of reason, he taught that individuals should be guided by reason alone in their search for knowledge and truth.
He showed himself to be a good citizen by generally spent his days in the streets of Athens teaching those who would listen. He attracted many young students, who admire his intelligence and applauded his use of reason to challenge traditional ideas and he also searched the code of conduct for human behavior.
12. Herodotus is called the founder of history as he made the first attempt to gather and analyze historical evidence of the history of Persian wars.
Thucydides contributed to the study of history by writing the history of the Peloponnesian wars and tried to remain impartial and included only facts that he could prove. Although he was an Athenian, he tried to present a balanced account of the war between Sparta and Athens. he set the example of unbiased reporting for future historian.
13. The Philip II of Macedonia showed that he admired Greek culture by: respected Greek military techniques he hired Greek generals to train his soldiers he admired Greek culture and invited Aristotle to supervise the education of his son, Alexander.
14. Alexander encouraged the blend of Eastern and Western culture by: he married a Persian princess and arranged a huge ceremony in which thousands of his soldiers married Persian women. He hoped the children of these marriages would help to unite the empire. Although he thought of himself as Greek, he gained the support of his new subjects by adopting some of their practices. Thus, he worshipped Persian as well as Greek gods and adopted Persian customs and dress.
15. Two medical discoveries of the Hellenistic period were: the human nervous system the blood circulates through veins and arteries.

IS202 World History and Civilization

Chapter V: Ancient Rome: Republic to Empire ( 509BC- 180BC )

I. Vocabulary
1. Republic: a system which all citizens with the right to vote choose their leaders.
2. Patrician: a class of wealthy landowners
3. Plebeian: the common people, including farmers, artisans, small merchants, and traders.
4. Consul: official
5. Veto: the right to block or an action of the other
6. Dictator: a person who had absolute power to control and order the others.
7. Legion: a division of 3000-6000 men, including a complement of cavalry in the Roman army.
8. Censor: a person who registered the population for tax and voting purposes.
9. Tribune: an officer or ancient Tome elected by the Plebeians to protect their rights s from arbitrary acts of the Patrician.
10. Tribute: was the same as it is our, a tax or an honor depending on how the word is used.
11. Imperator: a supreme power of the Roman emperor or an army commander in the Roman Republic
12. Devalue: to lessen or cancel the value of or to lower the exchange value of a currency by lowering its gold equivalency.
13. Inflation: the state of being inflated.

II. Comprehension Questions:
1. The three natural advantages that helped Rome become a powerful city are: the ancient Rome is the peninsula juts out like a boot into Mediterranean Sea, the sea provided some protection for the early peoples of Italy, later it become the highway for conquest and trade
The Po river, which is fed by melting snows from the Alps, Tiber could watch for enemy attacks and provided food and transportation the mountain overlooking the timber, block the cold winds and give the region a pleasant climate.
2. The power that the Senate had in the early Republic are: made up 300 patricians who served for life it guided foreign and domestic policies
Senate chose two consuls
Senate could appoint a dictator to replace the consuls in the crisis
3. The factors that contributed to rivalry between Rome and Carthage were when Rome conquered the Greek cities of southern Italy, it inherited the rivalry between those cities and Carthage over trade. Soon, Room and Carthage became increasingly suspicious of each other. A struggle between them for control of the western Mediterranean seemed unavoidable.
4. The outcome of the Second Punic War were:
From 218BC to 201BC, Hannibal’s troops roamed across Italy, destroying towns.
Roman legions harassed him but avoided open battle
Roman army landed in North Africa, and Hannibal had to leave Italy to defend Carthage.
5. The leaders such as Tiberius Gracchus demanded reform of the Roman government because he wanted the senate to limit the size of large estates, redistribute land to the poor, and settle landless farmers in the provinces.
6. Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus formed the First Triumvirate because he had hoped to be elected consul, but the senate fearing his popularity, blocked his bid for power.
7. Three ways in which Caesar tried to strengthen Rome and protect his own power were: he distributed land to the poor and granted Roman citizenship to people in provinces outside Italy, this action helped united the empire by giving people in the provinces a stake in Rome. To reduce unemployment, he began many building projects, he increased pay for soldiers and moved to end corruption in the provinces. He also introduced a more accurate calendar based on Hellenistic astronomy.
Caesar adopted his 18-year-old grandnephew Octavian as his son and heir. After “Caesar’s assassination, Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate with two of Chief commanders. He dissolved into a power struggle between Antony and Octavian. When Antony married Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, Octavian feared they planned to seize power, so he declared war. In 31 BC, at the naval battle of Actium off Greece, Octavian defeated them. Antony and Cleopatra fled back to Egypt. They later committed suicide when they learned that Octavian’s forces had landed at Alexandria. The next year, Egypt became part of the Roman Empire.
On his return to Rome, Octavian promised to share control of the empire with the senate. In practice, however, he had absolute authority. In 27 BC, the senate, realizing that peace depended on his leadership, gave Octavian the title Augustus..
8. List three reforms introduced by Augustus:
Between 27 BC and 14 AD, Augustus sponsored many reforms to strengthen the empire. He reorganized the army into a highly disciplined, professional body, loyal to the emperor. he encouraged former soldiers to settle in the provinces, where they could bolster local defense. he continued Caesar’s policy if granting Roman Citizenship to people in the provinces. Such measures ensured the loyalty of these people to Rome and spread Roman ideas.
9. The conditions that helped trade and commerce flourish during the Pax Romana are: the Roman navy protected merchants and traveler on the seas and Roman legions protected them on lands cities of the empire prospered coined money, issued by the emperors, further aided trade and commerce.
10. The economy suffered during the roman Empire during the Pax Romana because Romans imported more goods than they exported. Money, especially gold flowed out of Rome to pay for imported luxuries. To increase the supply of money at home, emperors issued new coins, mixing lead with the gold. The addition of lead devalued the coins, or lowered their value was based on their gold content.

IS202 World History and Civilization

Chapter VII: The Heritage Of India and China (600BC- 550BC)

I. Vocabulary:
1. Brahman: priest who is in the highest rank in Hindu faith.
2. Atman: Individual soul.
3. Karma: the belief that all the good and bad things that you do in the life affect y how good or bad your future lives will be.
4. Nirvana: enlightenment.
5. Stupa: large dome like structures that contained the remains of saintly monks.
6. Tao: the way followed to reach the good universal force that could not be defined

II. Comprehension Questions:
1. The goal of life, according to Hinduism, is to free the soul from its individual existence through reunion with atman.
2. The “Four Noble Truth “is the teaching Buddha teaches about suffering and way to overcome it.
1st truth: suffering and misery.
2nd truth: cause of suffering: desire.
3rd truth: overcoming desire: end suffering.
4th truth: follow middle way: escape pain and suffering.
3. They ruled their empire by divided the places into provinces and sent governance from the capital to oversaw tax collecting, justice and defensive. Government spies traveling in disguise reported on the honesty of officials. The emperors built roads that local governor had to keep in repair.
4. a. Blending culture of Greek and Indian
b. The spread of Hellenistic medicine, astronomy and astrology among Indian scholars.
5. a. The peace and property among Indian society
b. Mode advance in cut and sciences.
6. Two way in which the caste system become more restrictive:
a. - People in different caste were forbidden to speak together or eat the same table.
Out caste or untouchable:
Untouchable had to strike a piece of wood as they enter the town, so that people could hear them and avoid them.
Marriage outside a person caste became almost impossible.
b. The status of women also change:
Woman could own a certain amount of money, jewelry and clothing, but they had fewer rights than in earlier Aryan society. Women married in their very early life and obey her husband and her family.
The wisdom considered unlucky, she was isolated and ignored by her husband’s family.
7. Because of only a son could perform the sacrifices at his father’s funeral that enabled a man’s soul to pass into next life. Also a son carried on the family line.
8. The main subject of Indian art is sculpture and painting.
9. The contribution Indian made in mathematic:
They developed the concept of zero and developed a symbol for it.
They also devised a decimal system, with symbols for the numeral 1 through 9.
10. The five basic relationship:
The ruler and subject
Parent and child
Husband and wife
Older brother and younger brother
Friend and friend
11. The Taoist favor government that governed the least.
12. A stable society could be created due to efficient government, which could work effectively and systematically by the absolute power of the leader.
13. The great wall was built as long defense wall to prevent nomadic tries form raiding Northern China. It also established a clear boundary between china and barbarian for feigners.
14. A. Han rulers encourage education because they believe that officials should be scholars who were thoroughly familiar with teaching of Confucius in other words, they need well-trained officials to administer to government.
B. Two important focus of studies:
Calligraphy: the art of fine writing
The Chinese code of law.
15. A. Two practical invention during Han’s dynasty:
The wheel barrow
The watermill
B. - The wheel barrow made it easier for peasants to carry heavy loads. The watermill reduced the time needed to grind grain.
16. Buddhism appealed to many Chinese scholars and peasants. For scholars, they were interested in the ideas contained in Buddhist literature. For peasants, they found spiritual comfort in the Buddha who recognized the pain and suffering of this world and affected their hope.

III. Critical thinking and question:
1. Buddha believes that all people, no matter what their social class, could achieve Nirvana through the Middle way. Furthermore, he rejected the caste system and the Hinduismview the priests and superior than other people.
2. Because Asoka did all of the following:
He expanded the empire to its greatest size
He renounced violence and warfare, soon after he converted t o Buddhism because he rejected hunted and killing.
He set out to rule by example instead of by force
He traveled widely, urging people to live in peace with one another.
He sent officials across empire to teach the importance of good works, non-violence and religious toleration.
3. Such advances of art and science happen when political unity occurred because the security, safety inside the society give advantages for traveling of masters to teach people in different/ various area. And by no restriction, the learning could spread more widely and faster because people had no fear of their own security.
4. The Confucianism affects today China’s society in the way of respect of elders dominated family life.
5. - By strong and efficient political and military power
-Strong trade
-Strong governance

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