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Post Classical Era (600 CE - 1450)

By marialoaiza7 Oct 22, 2014 9501 Words
I. Questions of periodization A. Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C.E. 1450 as a period B. Emergence of new empires and political systems C. Continuities and breaks within the period (e.g., the impact of the Mongols on international contacts and on specific societies) The Islamic world II. The rise and role of Dar al-Islam as a unifying cultural and economic force in Eurasia and Africa A. The Rise 1. Arab Region Before a. Vast, dry area b. Nomadic Bedouin tribes c. Criss-crossed by trade routes d. Mecca 1. Trading crossroads 2. center for Arab tribal religious worship 3. Kaaba fallen from heaven and has special powers 4. Mechants made money selling goods/religious artifacts to travelers 2. Muhammad/Mohammed a. 610 - Gabriel one true God Allah b. Preached monotheism in Meeca 1. Posed a threat to social and economic order a. Many of the merchant class hostile b. Make money from pilgrimages c. 622 Travelled/flight to Yahtrib Medina 1. Hijra flight marks beginning of Islamic era a. Beginning of calendar d. Preached in Medina 1. Last of long line of prophets Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus a. Shares common history with Judaism and Christianity b. Does not accept Jesus as son of God c. Mohammad the last great prophet 2. Teachings written down as Quran (Koran) recitation 3. Community of believers Muslims e. 630 returned to Mecca to conquer it f. 632 death most of Arabia under Musilm Control 3. Beliefs a. Islam submit to Gods will b. Five duties Pillars 1. Faith one true God Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet 2. Prayer five times a day facing Mecca 3. Fasting daylight hours of Ramadan 4. Alms money to the poor/needy 5. Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca if able c. All people equal before God d. All should be converted to the faith 4. Early leadership under caliphs a. Expanded aggressively to the north b. Within 300 years, Middle East, N. Africa, and S. Asia fell to armies of Islam c. Weaknesses/decline of Persian/Byzantine Empire helped in spread 5. Empire grows as religion splits a. Conflict Shia vs. Sunni who should succeed Mohammad 1. Shia only family member of Muhammad descendants of Ali 2. Sunni chosen from among Umma Muslim community a. Earliest caliphs legitimate rulers b. Early death Abu Bakr becomes caliph head of state, military, judge, religion 1. Caliph unique position emperor pope chief justice 2. Ruled empire, but made important doctrinal decisions 3. Caliphate theocratic Islamic Empire 4. Abu Bakr ideal a. Conflict upon death family members or outside family b. Abu Bakr best of both words not in family, but one of first followers c. Later religion spread alone, initially spread simultaneously with politics d. Caliphs began to behave like monarchs 1. Problem who will rule next 2. Abu Bakr Umar Uthman assassinated a. Back to family Ali (cousin/son-in-law) assassinated a. Son Hasan takes over but relinquishes title b. Mecca Umayyads take over e. Notice huge irony people that wanted to kill him are now running his empire 6. Expansion a. Conquering of regions due to jihad holy war b. orArabs were nomads, Bedouins, and were used to fighting for territory 1. More interested in riches than converts 2. Many not even converted wanted head tax B. Role in unifying culture another Golden Age 1. Education a. More educational opportunities, career advancement b. Institutions of higher learning a. Cairo, Baghdad and Cordoba arose by 12th century c. Muhammad al-Razi massive encyclopedia 2. Learning of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Persians preserved a. Key, significant role in preserving western culture 1. Byzantines did this also 2. Western cultures decentralized/dismissive of past b. Translated writings of Plato/Aristotle to Arabic c. Europeans found saved classic civilization treasures in libraries/museums 1. Positive cultural exchange 3. Language a. Umayyads Arabic became official language b. Persian language and literary style blended with Arabic 4. Flowering of culture pronounced in al-Andalus Islamic Spain a. 711 Berbers from North Africa conquered Iberian peninsula b. Preserved Greco-Roman culture c. Enhancing it with scientific and mathematical developments of Muslim world d. Caliphate of Cordoba boasted magnificent library e. Free education in Muslim schools f. Interregional commerce thrived g. Introduction of language alcohol, algebra, sofa h. Architecture minarets, arches and arabesques used in Spanish art/architecture 5. Religion a. at first didnt want conversions taxes b. later - those conquered encouraged to convert create common faith c. Suffis Islamic mystics 1. Stressed personal relationship with Allah 2. Highly adaptable a. Can practice revering Allah in own ways b. Can place Allah in framework of own beliefs (is this true) d. Respect for Jews/Christians People of the Book 1. Required to pay taxes for charity on property 2. Allowed freedom to worship and self-rule within their communities 6. Women in Islam a. Better 1. Quran changed much of negative treatment 2. Treated with more dignity 3. Equal before Allah 4. Would have to return dowry to wife after divorce 5. Infanticide forbidden 6. Gained power within home 7. In early stages, women had power outside of home a. Muhammads wife Khadija also his boss, businesswoman b. Worse 1. Before Islam a. Viewed as property b. man could divorce woman and keep dowry c. Infanticide 2. After Islam a. Up to four wives, but must be able to support b. Man have one wife 1. Land passed through males, must know father c. Testimony in court half weight of man d. Veiled in Persia/Mesopotamia 1. Later spread to Islamic society e. Over time, changed more structure, patriarchal 1. Highly protected, more respected than before C. Role in unifying economic 1. Trade heightened from Western Mediterranean world to China 2. Urban centers a. Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba b. Baghdad great cultural centers of the world 3. Taxes a. Paid head tax for each person not Muslim 4. Money system a. Gold and silver coins standard monetary unit b. Introduced idea of credit 1. Free from burden/danger of carrying coins c. Itemized receipts/bills innovations later used elsewhere 5. Manufacturing a. Steel for swords D. Islamic political structures, notably the caliphate 1. Umayyad caliphate - Sunnis a. Moved capital to Damascus b. Theocratic rulers 1. Established cardinal tenets of faith 2. codified Islamic law c. Muawiyah set up central government allowed provincial leaders 1. provincial leaders appointed officials a. Diluted authority of caliphs d. 750 Shiite Muslims in Iraq/Iran rebelled drove out Umayyad, installed Abbasid e. Negatives 1. Lived in luxury prompted revolts 2. People of the Book a. Allowed Christians and Jews to rule selves b. Butinferior status still assigned to non-converts 2. Abassids - Shia a. Early Phase Expansion and consolidation 1. Though a theocracy, tolerant of local customs a. Though Christians/Jews sometimes persecuted in Levant b. Struggles of the Abassids 1. Too large to govern 2. Failed to address the problems of succession 3. High taxes made leaders less and less popular c. Fall of the Abassids 1. Local kingdoms began to arise 2. Persian leaders sultans took control of Baghdad in 945 3. Persians challenged by Seljuk Turks a. Eventually unite with Turks 4. Mongol invaders in 13th century 3. Islamic Empire a. Regular civil wars, internal struggles 1. Often caused by Sunni Shiite conflict b. 1258 Mongols overran Islamic Empire destroyed Baghdad 1. People flee to Egypt c. Eventully Ottoman Turks reunite until 1918 4. Role of sacred law Sharia a. Body of Muhammads teachings Quran interpretations by ulama holy men b. Sacred law immutable c. Model for every Muslim to live life and how state should govern d. Previously secular considerations became religious concerns E. Arts, sciences and technologies 1. Art a. Calligraphy b. Designs 1. arabesques adorned writing and program c. Architecture 1. Buildings commonly centered around a patio area 2. Minarets towers in which faithful received call to prayer 3. Mosques Muslims place of worship d. Great literature 1. Poetic works a. Arabian Nights 2. Science a. First stage preservation of classical learning 1. Greek logic, particularly Aristotle penetrated Muslim thought 2. Mathematics from Indcia a. Zero as place value b. Carried by caravan to Europe misnomer as Arabic b. Improvement, clarification, correction and new theories 1. Mathematics a. algebra, geometry, and trigonometry refined 2. Science a. Navigation 1. Astrolabe improved 2. cartographers most detailed maps in the world b. Astronomy 1. maps of the stars c. Medicine 1. Optic surgery as specialty 2. Human anatomy studied in detail 3. Hospitals best in the world a. Charlemagne from Europe chose Arab doctors c. Non-Arabic Sephardim Jews in Spain 1. Writing and working in Arabic 2. Cultural bridge between Middle East and Europe 3. Christian monks converted these texts to Latin 3. Technology III. Interregional networks and contacts Development and shifts in interregional trade, technology, and cultural exchange Buying/trading goods big incentive for interactions If self-sufficient, you can life in isolation If you lack a resource, two options a. Take or trade 3. Major trade routes a. Mediterranean western Europe, Byzantine Empire, Islamic Empire b. Hanseatic League 1. Baltic/North Sea Regions 2. 1241 banded together a. Common trade practices b. Fight off pirates/foreign governments c. Establish a trade monopoly 3. 100 cities joined league 4. Impact a. substantial middle class in Northern Europe 1. Drive changes in future centuries b. Precedent for large, European trading operations 1. Affected Dutch/English c. Silk Road d. Land routes of Mongols e. Trade between China/Japan f. Trade between India/Persia g. Trans-Sharan routes west Africa/Islamic Empire 4. Trade aided by a. better boats/roads b. monetary systems c. lines of credit d. accounting record keeping, money management key i. Keeping records establishes business relationship ii. Once you have relationship, you can consider investment iii. International business the next step Role in cultural diffusion a. Religions and languages spred b. Literature and art spread c. Plague spread i. Bubonic plague Black Death Asia 14th century ii. Eventually 1 out of 3 in Europe iii. Led to decline of feudal society Global Trade Network a. Global Network not controlled by one entity 1. Interconnected, highly-independent parts 2. Managers at each site 3. No one managing it, but everyone (accept Americas) involved b. After 1200 world interconnected 1. Europe to Islamic World/Russia 2. Islamic World India, Africa, China 3. India China/East Africa Trans-Sahara trade 1. Ghana land of gold a. Dry savannah grasslands b. Arab traders 1. Helped spread Islamic faith 2. Expanded knowledge of Africa c. Economy regulated by monarchy 1. Gold production controlled a. Overproduction caused value to decline 2. Exports a. salt b. gold 1. After 1200, Europe mints gold coins value increases 2. Primary supplier of gold to world c. honey d. slaves e. ivory 3. Imports more useful metals a. copper b. horses c. textiles d. figs e. iron d. Absorbed by Mali 2. Mali a. Dominant empire until 1350 CE b. Already nominally Muslim, now greater numbers converted c. Mansa Musa a. Greatest of the Malian kings b. Libraries and Islamic schools throughout kingdom c. Mosques d. Timbuktu regional cultural center for West Africa, capital e. 1324 Pilgrimage to Mecca 1. Entourage of 50,000, many adorned with gold 2. Wealth paraded fro thousands of miles f. After 1350 provinces began to proclaim power, split up Indian Ocean trade Persians and Arabs dominated Arabs controlled west Middle zone controlled by various Indian kingdoms East zone controlled by China Trade routes connected ports in western India to Persian Gulf a. Then connected to East Africa b. 6000 miles 3. Travel a. Resilient to larger waves b. Understand the monsoon season/direction of winds c. Routes relatively safe 1. Mediterranean always had to worry about warfare 4. Marrige a. Sailors married local women at end of routes 1. Cultures intermix 2. Foreign wives created bilingual/bicultural families 5. Goods a. From Africa ivory, animal hides, forest-related goods, gold, slaves b. From Middle East textiles, carpets, glass, Arabian horses c. From India gems, elephants, salt, cotton cloth, cinnamon d. From China silk, porcelain, paper Japan silver 6. China during Ming Dynasty a. Refocused trade in early 15th century on Indian Ocean trade 1. Display glories of Middle Kingdom b. Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf/Red Sea c. Expeditions led by Zheng He Chinese general of Muslim faith 1. Forced to return jealous of notoriety of Zheng He 2. Wanted to use money to protect against nomadic invasions 3. Chinese junks huge boats d. Focused from then on regional trade Silk routes Connected China to Mediterranean since era of Roman Empire Used heavily 1200-1600 reign of the Mongols Products Much more than silk Porcelain Paper Military technology Buddhism, Islam, Christianity Food 4. East met West via Silk Road 5. Any discussion about international trade must include Silk Road 6. Marco Polo a. Went with Venetian dad and brother to Asia b. Returned home and wrote book c. Noticed fascinating topics 1. banking system paper money/letters of credit 2. black rock (coal) for fuel 3. highways linking cities 4. Express messengers to carry news throughout empire Missionary outreach of major religions Christianity Remained in Africa Ethiopia and Egypt Egypt allowed to exist under Islamic empire Myth of Ethiopian wealth led to Prestor John myth i. Led to exploration later on Contacts between major religions, e.g., Islam and Buddhism, Christianity and Islam 1. North and East Africa a. Christianity 1. In spite of Muslim influence 2. Ethiopia a. St. Mark preached to East Africans during Roman period b. Strong Christian traditions c. Coptic monasticism 3. Egypt 4. Allowed by Muslims to worship freely a. Many preferred rule under Muslims to former Christians 1. Cheaper and more religious tolerance 5. Unique linguistic, architectural and artistic version of Christianity 2. Holy Land The Crusades f. Reasons for crusades 1. convert nonbelievers 2. crush Christian movements Church deemed heretical 3. protect against attacks by foreigners g. Reasons for Crusades 1. Genuine religious fervor 2. Geopolitical conflict between Europe and Middle East 3. Europeans desire to become more involved in trade 4. Personal ambitions gain wealth and land 5. Racial and religious prejudice a. Period of stability after 1000 CE led to increased trade/higher agricultural output 1. Population boom tripled number b. Pope encouraged military expeditions to reclaim Holy Land 1. 1059-1212 take control from Muslims 2. First Crusade Jerusalem taken, but then lost c. Muslims agreed to allow Christians to journey to holy sites d. Ripple effects through Europe 1. Luxury items created demand for Asian goods 2. Italian city-states grew wealthy 3. Merchant class arost that supported stable monarchies wanted trade protected 4. Church in Rome became more politically involved/powerful 5. Europe stimulated by technology/prosperity of Middle East 6. Women given more influence cared for estates a. Some even went on Crusades e. Some of the Crusades merely huge migration of people Impact of the Mongol empires Rise Mongols epitome of nomadic culture Superb horsemen and archers Could have been a world power earlier i. Rivalries between tribes/clans prevent unification ii. Remained isolated Genghis Khan Chingiss Khan Limitless strength ruler i. military/organizational skills ii. largest empire ever iii. Mongol invasion 1234 iv. Spanned Pacific Ocean to eastern Europe Military Ogranization Organization based on decimal system 1. Tjumen (Division) 10,000, Mingghan (Regiment) 1,000 a. Leaders appointed by khan 2. Jaghun (Company) 100 men, Arben (Squad) 10 men a. elected by men Efficient/meritocratic approach 1. Leaders chosen for ability/not family relations Why successful i. Choices die in fight, house burned down, burn religious buildings or give in ii. Ruthless warriors, highly organized, highly mobile iii. 90 miles a day vs. Roman 25 miles a day iv. Bows range of 300 yards v. Armies divided into organized units light, heavy cavalry scouts vi. Motivated a. Genghis punished traitors b. Rewarded courage generously vii. Stealthy network of spies viii. Goals clear surrender or entire village destroyed ix. Adept at cultural borrowing Military innovations armor made of lacquered wood and silk use of feints and flanking maneuvers concentrated light rations for troops on horseback Strategy i. When coming up to city, promised to spare inhabitants ii. If they disagreed, theyd slaughter every human and animal destruction total iii. Rapid success and brutality spread quickly iv. Unparalleled military achievements and ruthlessness Split into hordes independent empires i. Golden Horde conquered Russia ii. Kublai Khan ruled China iii. Destroyed cities, ruthless warriors Largest single empire in human history a. Period of peace Pax Mongolia Conquered Areas Once settled developed Law code Yasa borrowed from several cultures Written language Turkik language of Uighur New religious practices Sometimes adopted religions of those they conquered Buddhism and Islam Better technology social and cultural advancements Used paper currency taken from China Postal system message carried on horseback yam Pony Express b. After death of Genghis Khan brief period of calm while sons organized holdings c. Under Ogodei son extended into China/Korea and then to Eastern Europe d. Failure in Eastern Europe Ogodeis nephew Batu led i. overextended too far from home ii. unfamiliar terrain forests, mountains iii. fortresses/castles slowed advance iv. Batu forced to return after Ogodeis death v. Did conquer Russia and parts of Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania a. Called Golden Horde orda camp e. Failure in Japan 1274/1281 i. Violent storms f. Khubilai Khan shifted power from Domain of the Great Khan to Yuan Empire China i. New Dynasty called Yuan 1278-1369 a. Policy of segregation between Mongols and Chinese 1. Marriage forbidden b. Abolishing examination system for choosing government officials 1. Often appointed non-Chinese for posts c. Extended the Grand Canal linking cities Fall Hardly lasted 3 to 4 generations Not able administrators Overspending led to inflation One can conquer an empire on horseback, but one cannot govern that empire from horseback. After Kublai Khan died, leadership weak/ineffective i. Rivalry among successors destabilized who would be successor ii. empire divided among generals f. Russia overthrown by rise of Russia g. Ottoman Turks replaced them in Asia 4. Imp
act a. Once domain established relative peace Pax Mongolica i. notion of peacefulness an exaggeration b. Allowed for exchange of goods, ideas, culture from different regions i. Biggest impact conduit for cultural exchange c. Civilization based on territory and conquest, not culture i. culture of killing, maiming, destroying ii. Mongol Empire, not Mongol Civilization iii. In many cases, stifled growth iv. Illiterate no need for arts/sciences v. Mongol religion no place among great faiths d. Silk Road flourished i. Cities like Samarkand, with oases, bazaars, markets became commercial centers a. Merchants, travelers, pilgrims, missionaries all passed through d. Some assimilated i. Persia became Muslim e. China Kublia Khan i. dismissed Confucian scholars ii. forbade marriage between Mongols and Chinese iii. Wouldnt allow Chinese to learn Mongol language iv. Keynot allowed to Mongolize kept own culture 1. 1368 kicked out Ming Dynasty under traditional Chinese practices f. Major consequences 1. Russia conquered by illiterate Mongols didnt unify, develop like European neighbors 2. World trade, cultural diffusion, awareness a. Touched nearly all major civilizations b. World would never again be disconnected g. Summary effects 1. nations formed and destroyed 2. nations had social, cultural and political characteristics shaped by decades of rule 3. much of Eurasian landmass united/connected by political, economic, cultural links 4. Contrasted with other civilizations a. No Golden Age, but larger b. Usually slowed cultural developments c. Culture sharedbut it wasnt their culture IV. Chinas internal and external expansion A. The importance of the Tang and Song economic revolutions and the initiatives of the early Ming dynasty 1. Sui kingdom a. Brief 581-618 1. Ended civil war era 2. Buddhism aggressively patronized by rulers a. Building of pagodas, temples, artwork Buddhist influence 3. Natural disasters led to famine, unrest - rebellion 1. Political Changes a. 618-907 Tang 1. Expanded territory to Tibet, part of Korea b. 960-1279 Song 1. Always at conflict/on the defensive with Northern neighbors c. 1279-1368 Mongols d. 1368 Ming e. Tang/Song - Relatively peaceful 1. Stable bureaucratic system based on civil service exam (started in Han) a. Focused on Confucian principles b. Large core of educated, talented, loyal government workers c. Stable regardless of who was in charge i. even Mongols kept bureaucrats d. meritocracy not aristocracy e. Similar to America today leaders change, bureaucrats remain f. scholar-gentry 2. Built extensive infrastructure a. Transportation/communication networks i. Tang network of roads, inns, postal stations b. Canals f. Constant military threat from the North g. Tributary system neighboring regions sent delegations 1. Show deference to Chinese emperor kowtow 2. Chinese perception as superior to foreigners 2. Economic Changes a. Tang/Song new business practices 1. Paper money 2. Letters of credit flying money b. New Technologies 1. Gunpowder for military 2. Boats junks a. best of their time b. magnetic compass c. watertight bulkheads d. sternpost rudders 3. Practical inventions for navigation/economy a. Astronomy, compass, water-powered clock b. Abacus c. block printing c. Trade 1. increasingly involved with elaborate commercial network Pacific Coast/Southeast Asia a. Port of Canton became one of worlds busiest trading centers b. Goods, merchants, ideas, and money from all over China c. Large trading vessels junks cruised Eastern seas silk/manufactured d. Extensive network of roads to bind empire together 1. Network of inns/postal stations for communication d. Iron production 1. Increased tenfold 2. Rivaled British production during Industrial Revolution d. Agriculture 1. Champa rice from Vietnam fast ripening rice 2. New agricultural techniques 3. Population increases from 45115 million 4. Large estates broken up/land redistributed a. Threat of power from regional lords e. High taxation often leads to peasant revolts downfall of dynasty f. population growth ten cities with more than a million people South faster than North 1. new strains of rice 2. opening of new land to agriculture draining swamps/terracing hillsides 3. end of government-controlled markets/ started privately owned shops 4. currency based economy 5. iron manufacturing 6. development of oceangoing vessels g. protected trade on Silk Road 3. Social Changes a. Accomplished in all categories 1. art, science, philosophy, porcelain making, silk weaving, transportation systems a. Tang poetry most significant b. Song printing process expanded literacy b. Women 1. Wu Zhao first empress of China a. Ruthless to adversaries b. Compassionate to peasants 2. Majority stayed inferior a. Like European Middle Ages, womens beauty and femininity key 1. Song foot binding a. Bound since birth wouldnt grow with body b. Large feet considered manly/ugly c. Painful, crippling d. Accepted by wealthy first, poor later practicality 3. Marriages set up to benefit groom 4. Women of lower classes freer from strictures 5. Had inheritance and property rights, retained dowry after divorce/death c. Religion 1. Following Han many religions influenced a. Nestorians, Manicheans, Zoroastrians, Islam 2. Buddhism greatest influence state-sponsored during Sui a. Mahayana 1. Emphasis on peaceful, quiet existence 2. Life apart from worldy values b. Chan/Zen Buddhism 1. Educated classes worked with Confucianism 2. Meditation/appreciation of beauty c. Confucian/Daoist reaction 1. Seen as drain on treasury/labor pool a. Buddhism dismissed importance of wealth b. Imperial tax exemptions/private gifts of property 2. Daoists saw as thrat 3. Mid-800s Emperor Wuzong persecutions a. Destroyed thousands of monasteries d. Art 1. Stylized and symbolic landscape painting e. Philosophy 1. Neo-confucian thought a. Looked at ancient text b. Codified traditional Chinese philosophy c. Blended Confucianism with Daoism d. Attractive to leaders apply rules to all elements of life e. Chinese elite classes withdraw from contact with other people f. Reinforced gender/class distinctions f. Growth of cities 1. urbanization some cities exceeded one billion people B. Chinese influence on surrounding areas and its limits 1. Overall a. Neighboring peoples became tributary states 1. Forced to kow-tow prostrate self 2. Intensified Chinese perception as superior to all foreigners b. Rural populations attracted to Chinas system 1. Japan a. Geography 1. Four main islands 2. Relatively isolated a. Rate of exchange limited b. Only in recent centuries has it allowed Western influence b. Political 1. Yamato clan first, only dynasty to rule a. Current emperor descendant of original 2. 7th Century Prince Shotoku a. Borrowed bureaucratic legal reforms from China b. Called Taika Reforms enacted after death borrowed from China 1. Chinese characters in written language a. butdid not work with Japanese language 2. Buddhism 3. Court etiquette from the Tang dynasty 4. Chinese architecture 5. Confucian literary classics 6. Organization of government into departments/ministries 7. law codes 8. tax system 9. calendar 10. art, literature, music c. Modeled new capital after Tang capital d. adopted Chinese beliefs, but rejected 1. Confucianism 2. civil service examination 3. In Japan, education not nearly as important as birth a. Nobility hereditary, not earned e. Buddhism threatened provincial leaders 3. After 794 capital moved power of aristocratic families increased a. Emperor became figurehead, power with Fujiwara family 1. Unlike Mandate of Heaven emperor cant be overthrown b. Eventually power spread, fighting over control of small territories c. Heian Period city of peace 1. Further isolation of emperor kept in seclusion 2. Regional clansmen vie for kwampaku ruler for emperoro 3. Rise of powerful clans/families with private armies 4. 1192 power goes to Shogun chief general a. After Gempei Wars peasants vs. Samurai b. Military state established c. Daimyo huge landowner samurai part warrior/part nobility d. Divided land to lesser vassals/samurai e. Construction of fortresses - protection c. Economic 1. Peasants/artistans exist to serve the samurai a. Gradually became serfs bound to the land 2. Hierarchy based on a land for loyalty exchange d. Social 1. Early on Shinto religion a. way of the gods b. kami nature and all the forces of nature c. goal become part of kami by following rituals/customs d. encourages obedience/proper behavior e. Yamato claimed descendant from sun goddess 2. Buddhist Missionaries brought Chinese culture a. Most adopted Buddhism kept Shinto 3. Under Fujiwara had Golden Age a. Men started to write poetry, women more toward prose b. Development of more unique Japanese culture c. Lady Murasaki Tale of Genji epic about love/court life 4. Women a. Noblewomen literary prolific compared to others 1. Written in the Japanese kana - syllabary b. Butadored in Europe, lost all freedom in Japan 5. Code of Bushido chivalry Way of the Warrior a. Loyalty, courage, honor b. Expected to commit suicide if he fails to uphold code 1. Seppuku hari kari - disembowlment c. Four Cardinal Virtues 1. Fidelity 2. Virility fearlessness 3. Truthfulness/sincerity 4. Simplicity d. Samurai dress, hairstyles, swords distinctive e. Samurai at times called to protect emperor 6. Art under shogunate a. sketches done with ink b. tea ceremony 1. tranquility, ritual c. decorative gardens 1. Related to philosophical/religious principles 2. cultivation of bonsai trees 3. Arrangement of rock garde d. Haiku verses triple lines 17 syllables 1. simplicity, peacefulness, emphasis on insight/enlightenment e. Noh drama 2. Korea a. Geography b. Political 1. Tang forces withdrew in exchange for tributary arrangement a. Silla kingdom vassal of China b. Willingly performed kowtow c. Economic 1. Tribute allowed Korea to participate in trading network/education systems d. Social 1. Writing adapted and made suitable to Korean 2. Confucian classics read by Korean scholars 3. Art a. Porcelain manufacture 1. Celadon bowls characteristic pale green color 3. Vietnam/Southeast Asia a. Geography 1. Successful rice paddy method a. Wet method better than dry method b. Political 1. Highly valued independence, not willing to become tributaries a. Fierce desire to distinguish themselves as unique 2. Smaller kingdoms Khmer domain strongest Cambodia today a. Built some of most extensive temple complexes Angkor Wat 1. Dedicated to Hindu God Vishnub. Empire extended to Thailand, Laos, Vietnam declined in 1400 CE 3. Vietnam periodically absorbed into dynastic China a. Invaded by Tang Dynasty b. 939 established independent kingdom c. Succumbed to Ming power in 1408 d. 1428 pushed out for last time c. Economic 1. Before Qin, already carrying on trade a. Song China and Malaya d. Social 1. Differences with China, had cultural identity a. Unique spoken language b. Lived in villages, not urban areas c. Society based on nuclear family, not extended family d. Women enjoyed more privileges 2. Eventually accepted Chinese traditions of a. agricultural/irrigation techniques b. Confucian veneration for ancestors c. extended family structure 3. Women more autonomy than other Asian cultures a. Famous Trung sisters helped defend land against Chinese iinvasion 1. National heroines b. Active in local commerce, proved able merchants V. Developments in Europe A. Restructuring of European economic, social, and political institutions 1. Economic a. West 1. Before fall of Roman Empire, small landowners already selling off land holdings to larger estates i. Many people left urban for rural protection ii. Trade continued to decline political order disintegrated 2. Early part towns shrink in size 3. 500-1500 Middle Ages Medieval 4. 500-1000 Dark Ages judgmental, inaccurate 5. Manorialism/Feudalism European social, economic, political system i. Estates fiefs/manors ii. Form of unfree agricultural labor iii. Method of harnessing peasant labor 1. Ensure steady food supply 2. Different than slavery a. Can not be bought or sold b. Could pass on property to heirs iv. Peasants lived on manor in exchange for place to live and protection 1. Gave lord part of crops 2. Number of days each month performed services on lords land v. Manors remarkably self-sufficient 1. food harvested 2. clothing and shoes made 3. Great Clearing work together to cut down forests 4. Scientific advances helped manors succeed a. Three-field system fall harvest, spring, fallow b. Led to food surplus, at times c. Buttools rather crude i. Moldboard plow in 9th century able turn soil 6. Gradually skilled serfs started trading with the rest of the world i. Chipped away at social stratification ii. Banking began towns and cities gain momentum iii. Middle Class emerges craftsmen/merchants 1. People lured to towns hope of making money 2. 11th century Europe re-entering the world b. East Byzantine 1. Coined money provided stability 2. Unique position between Mediterranean and Black Seas i. Crossroads of Europe and Asia ii. Remarkable military/economic importance for 1500 years iii. Provided commercial/cultural connections iv. Preserver of Christianity 3. Absolute authority i. Controlled economy 1. Especially industries silk production c. Renewed economic growth 1. Caused by i. Rise of towns ii. Use of money rather than barter iii. Labor shortage from plague iv. Enclosure of open fields v. Peasant rebellions 2. Renewed interaction between Europe and Central Asia i. Following Crusades Sugarcane, spices, luxury goods porcelain, glassware, carpets Unbalanced trade East showed little interest in Western goods 4th Crusade Venice merchants actually raid Constantinople Power to monarchs to collect taxes for armies encouraged growth of merchant/artisan class exposed Europeans to learning gave Europeans better sense of geography Venice/Genoa other wealthy trading cities developed internal trading routes Bad effects Muslim/Christian hostility Encouragement of anti-Semitism Undermining of Byzantine Empire Worsens East/West relations 3. Signs of changing economics Knights improved military effectiveness Created middle class Improved agricultural techniques population growth Vikings became Christians, settled, stopped invading relative security France palace schools to educate local children Landlords extended holdings Sometimes paid serfs for these new lands 4. High Middle Ages a. Renewal of economic/intellectual vigor and tendency toward centralized political authority led to new era in Europe b. Increased Eurasian trade c. Growth of banking d. Towns regulated business/collected taxes e. New warfare technology - gunpowder and cannon made castles obsolete f. Decline in number of serfs on manor i. Some serfs received wages ii. Others fled to towns 1. Serf in town for year and a day considered a free person Social Feudalism social class King power over kingdom Nobles granted land in exchange for military service/loyalty to king Nobles divided land among vassals Vassals divide to subordinate vassals Peasants then worked the land of these subordinate vassals Everyone fulfills obligations to vassals Military Food production Status defined by birth Lord knight merchant artisan peasant Power determined by land ownership Feuds develop have etiquette chivalry Rules of engagement Honor system promoted mutual respect Most lords and knights followed this code of chivalry i. Songs/legends provided examples King Arthurs Round Table ii. Chivalry more myth than reality Peasant rights Peasants became tied to land literally couldnt leave without permission Not quite slaves, but not entirely free Imprisonment on land made them quite highly-skilled Needed to be self-sufficient Role of Women Traditional roles of homemaker/childcare provider Code of chivalry reinforced women as weak/subordinate Convents offered women opportunities Service in communities Women in towns a bit more freedom Allowed to participate in trade/craft guilds Male-dominated Land power, only males can inherit Primogeniture eldest son Noblewomen few powers though elevated through literature Education limited to domestic skills Regarded essentially as property protected and displayed Needed feminine traits beauty/compassion Political West Small feudal kingdoms Extreme decentralization No single ruler able to provide unity Few cultural and technological advancements Great Migration of Germanic and Asiatic Some settled permanently Kingdoms tended to be unsophisticated/short-lived As Barbarian tribes became less nomadic, played key roles Lords only have direct contact with king when called to service Normally lord in charge of his own land Disputes erupted between lords the term feud Era characterized by local power struggles Settled through battle or marriages Emergence of regional governments not until 800s/900s did true nations centralized states unite common ethnic, linguistic, cultural heritage Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne (768-814) 800 CE crowned emperor Charles the Great for protecting Church established papal authority over kings cemented relationship between rulers/Church Franks overran Gaul Germanic tribe 5th century converted to Christianity Carolingian Dynasty Charles Martel stopped Muslims 732 Frankish royalty allies with Pope Symbiotic relationship between Church/king England Alternative form of feudalism Norman invasion of 1066 Duke of Normandy William the Conqueror Viking descent transplanted his form of feudalism Instead of vassal form of feudalism All vassals owe allegiance to monarch Successors started Paid bureaucracy Royal court system Single system of laws Jury system Growth of Parliamentary Government in England Unique Limitations on monarch One of earliest parliamentary governments 1215 nobles wanted to control tax policies of King John Forced to sign Magna Carta No taxation without cosent No arbitrary arrest Guarantee of justice to all Monarchy not above the law Entitled nobility to basic rights Later interpreted that all social classes get these rights 1265 first English parliament House of Lords clergy and nobility House of Commons urban elite class Used power of purse to control monarchs needed money to go to war Northern Italy/Germany gained prominence by 10th century Wanted to connect with classical empire of Rome Territory Holy Roman Empire Voltaire neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire Fraction of the size Italy still run by city-states Germany still run by feudal lords Provided a measure of unity during Middle Ages, but Delayed unification of Germany and Italy until 19th century East Byzantine Absolute authority Secular rulers headed the church Justinian Code codification of ancient Roman legal principles Had gone unused for awhile in the West High Middle Ages Strengthening of nation states Hundred Years War 1337-1453 Increased power of France/England Considered end of medieval period Cultural East vs. West Byzantine Empire Greek language Blended Greek and Roman elements Icon painted images of Christian saints, Virgin Mary and Jesus Architecture with domes More in common with Persia Mastery of mosaic art Under Justinian trade and arts flourish Hagia Sophia West Only in Spain, was Greek/Roman learning maintained by Muslims in Spain Development of vernacular languages Mystery plays Few literary works stories about saints Development of polyphonic music, chants for religious ceremonies Return to stone for buildings some Romanesque copies High Middle Ages Increased urbanization still nothing like China Rise of universities Gothic architecture cathedrals tall spires/arched windows with stained glass Muslim designs Western architectural technology Technology Mechanical clock China 750 Europe/Italy 14th century Paper along Silk Road taught by Persians Italians first Printing press block printing China 8th Century Johan Gutenberg 1436 mass production of text critical Raised literacy rates Spread information Increased impact of new ideas/scientific theories Encouraged expansion of universities/libraries Key Role in Renaissance/Reformation/Scientific Revolution Spectacles/eye glasses lenses originally for astronomers 1285 Florentine invented first spectacles Firearms/Gunpowder 3 century BCE made Used as firearm/cannon in 9th century 1252 made it to Europe Philosophy Scholastism reconcile logic and faith logic, senses, scientific learning vs. dogma Saint Thomas Aquinas most brilliant Italian monk Summa Theologica Also influenced by Muslim/Jewish thinkers Music and Literature a. Gregorian chants simple chant without instruments b. Later secular music love and adventure i. troubadours and minstrels made popular 11th/12th century 1. Favorite subjects heroic legends knights, Roland, El Cid c. Literature Latin language of elite i. Poetry began being written in vernacular local language ii. More literature available to more people d. Universities i. Initially under Church influence ii. Havens for learning, discussion, exchange of ideas Architecture a. Byzantine/Middle East methods castle building b. Cathedrals higher degree of skill i. Required immense amounts of money ii. Could take a century to build c. Styles i. Romanesque thick walls, small windows, square blocky building ii. Gothic tall, slender spires, ornate carvings, large stained-glass windows, flying buttresses to support weight of walls Similarities to Japanese feudalism Knights to samurai vassals who served in lords military force Followed an honor code chivalry In contrast to bushido chivalry was two-sided contract between vassal/lord Started 800s after division of Holy Roman Empire vs. started in opposition to power of the Fujiwara King, queen, emperor vs. Emperor as puppet ruler, shogun as real power Hereditary/deposed length of service vs. emperor hereditary/deposed, but shogun force/intrigue RulerVassalVassalKnight Emperorprovincial aristocratvassal warrior chiefsamurai Large population engaged in agriculture vs. small agriculture population Bushido applied to both men and women of samurai class Chivalry only followed by knights The division of Christendom into eastern and western Christian cultures Key points Both practiced different forms of Christianity Monasticism a. formation of religious communities, not ordained priests monks/nuns b. based on Benedictine ideas of contemplation, seclusion c. Later groups Dominicans/Franciscans more missionary work Competed for supremacy Split in 286 easier to administer 330 Constantine converts to Christianity changes center to Constantinople 395 Split again Eastern part Constantinople 800 Holy Roman Empire starts in West centered in Rome 1054 Great Schism - Christianity split into Roman Catholicism and Christian Orthodoxy Question of control centralized through Church or state For centuries tolerated each other, but then differences too great Communion Priests should be allowed to marry Use of local languages in church Nature of God trinity Use of icons during worship Eastern Christian Culture Orthodox Christianity Secular rulers ran church Patriarch of Constantinople 1054 excommunicated pope Less centralized Russian churches conducted services in own language Local customs merged with Orthodox Church practices Secular empire with official church religion attached Western Christian Culture originally Christendom, then Catholic universal Overview - Importance Provided Europeans with sense of religious unity regardless of national/linguistic differences, still united Preserved Latin manuscripts philosophical essays literary works tremendous wealth of learning passed on from Muslims Tremendous sway over secular and political affairs Pope ran church pope cardinals archbishops priests Sacraments Baptism formalized entrance Confirmation passage to adulthood Marriage Communion Lords Supper Confession seek penance Ordination consecrated life to serving God priest Last Rites Extreme Unction given before death 1054 pope excommunicated patriarch of Constantinople Papal authority expands because of Refusal to pay taxes for Church land Sole authority of clergy over Church lands Lands given after death Though politics less centralized, religion more centralized Edicts from pope Services in Latin Political power blessed by the Church, under control early centuries of Middle Ages Religious empire with subservient political units VI. Social, cultural, economic, and political patterns in the Amerindian world A. Maya, Aztec, Inca Background a. Earliest Meso-American state was the Omecs 1500-500 BCE 1. Foundation for basic cosmology of later Mesoamerican religions 2. Other foundations a. pyramid mounds surrounded by plaza b. elaborate, public religious ceremonies c. large stone sculptures d. solar calendar e. network of trade routes 1. Social a. Maya 1. Kings, priests, hereditary nobility at top of social pyramid 2. Merchants relatively high status 3. Majority of people peasants or slaves a. Similar to most agricultural societies b. Aztec 1. Nomadic people, Mexicas, migrated through Mexico 2. Stratified a. Classes of nobles, peasants and slaves b. Organized into clans calpulli 3. Women a. Died in childbirth honored similar to men dying in battle b. talent for weaving honored c. politically subordinate d. could inherit property and will it to heirs c. Inca 1. Women wives domestic servants a. Peasant women weavers, farmers, child rearers b. Option of religious life serve in temples of gods d. Generalities 2. Cultural a. Maya 1. Pyramid builders like Egyptians a. Chichen Itza similar to Egyptian pyramids/ziggurat b. Several ball courts i. Ritual sport 2. Wrote using hieroglyphics 3. Religion a. Divided their cosmos into three parts i. Humans middle level ii. Between heavens and the underworld b. Gods created humans out of maize (corn) c. Gods maintained agricultural cycle for honors, sacrifices, bloodletting ritual d. Warfare has religious significance i. Days of ritual precede battle ii. King and nobility actively participate in battle iii. Purpose to acquire slaves - No large animals, had to use manpower 4. Golden age 500 850 CE a. Produced many great works of scholarship b. Developed complex calendar i. Mayan calendar based on zero c. Architecture and city planning best researched ruins still exist i. Tikal most important political center 100,000 people b. Aztec 1. Religion built great pyramids as temples a. Worshipped many of the same gods as other Central American peoples i. Key deities jaguar god/feathered serpent (Quetzalcoatl) ii. Sun God Huitziopochtli giant hummingbird iii. Reappearance of sun based on worship iv. Sun drew its energy from human blood v. Human sacrifice on extremely large scale a. Victims prisoners of war as well as ordinary citizens b. 20,000 per year killed c. Inca 1. Method of communication 13,000 19,000 miles of roads 2. Cities Machu Picchu great fortress/temple complex 3. Religion a. Worshipped number of deities i. Foremost sun god ii. Temple of the Sun designed in shape of puma Interior lined with gold staffed by thousands of acllas virgins of the sun d. Generalities 1. High level of situation without developing alphabet/written language 2. Financial records kept through series of knots on cords/strings quipo 3. Religion polytheism, sun gods important, deities/sites have animal themes 3. Economic a. Maya 1. Advanced agricultural techniques a. Ridged field system i. Swamp and heavy rainfall 2. Cotton/maize widely cultivated a. Known for cotton textiles 3. No large animals had to use manpower a. Led to need for slavery b. Aztecs 1. chinampas twisted vines with soil on top floated in canals 2. maize and beans primary staple 3. marketplace under government control 4. Records kept through picture writing/hieroglyphics c. Inca 1. Grew crops but cultivating land difficult a. Terrace farming staircase fashion b. Labor intensive 2. Animal Husbandry a. Llamas, alpacas, vicunas b. Used for transport/food products/wool d. Generalities 1. Maize/corn primary staple 2. Agriculture/construction done without wheel/large beasts of burden 4. Political a. Maya 1. 300 BCE 800 CE 2. Collection of city-states ruled by king 3. Reasons for decline a. Disease b. Drought c. Internal unrest d. Deserted cities around 800 CE b. Aztec 1. Chief city Tenochtitlan Mexico City today a. At height, population of half a million b. Palace of king covered two acres c. Connected by four causeways 2. militant warrior tradition 3. rule by severe despots 4. large urban capital 5. decentralized network of city-states who paid tribute c. Inca 1. Part of Andean peoples - mountain a. Royal court in Cuzco king Great Inca i. Sacred, descended from god of the sun ii. Punishable by death to look at him d. Generalities 5. Moundbuilders of North America a. 700-1500 CE Mississippians b. Agricultural people c. Earthen mounds burial places/ceremonial centers 1. Cahokia in Illinois most famous 2. Pyramid design shows contact with Mesoamerica VII. Demographic and environmental changes A. Impact of nomadic migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas 1. Aztecs a. Established tribute empire 1. Military seized prisoners of war for sacrifices 2. Mongols a. Effects on Afro-Eurasia 1. Facilitation of trade a. Exchange of products 1. Brought wealth to merchants 2. Enriched exchange of ideas from east to west 3. Developed uniform economic and trade policies 4. Paper money (Chinese invention) used in parts b. New trading posts 1. Men on horseback station to station c. Encouraged Europeans to pursue voyages of exploration 2. Pax Mongolica a. For about a century, two continents united b. Adapted legal conventions from some of conquered people c. Mongols convert to/adopt local religions 3. Spread of bubonic plague a. Flea/plague infested rats eating off Mongol grain feedsacks b. Followed trade routes c. 25 million in China, 1/3 of Europe 1. Dealt final blow to manorialism d. Plague devastated areas took 100 years to return population/economic vigor 3. Turks 4. Vikings a. Nordic peoples from Scandinavia 1. Skilled invaders, explorers, traders, colonists 2. Small, maneuverable boats a. Raided/terrorized coastal communities b. Maritime skill took them to the new world briefly colonized N. America 1. Newfoundland Leif Ericsson 3. Favorite targets monasteries burned/plundered 4. Eventually evolved from plunderers to traders 5. Established communities in Scotland, France, Eastern Europe a. Settlements known as Norman Northmen b. 1066 Norman lord William invaded England 1. Defeated Saxons established Norman power/Britain 6. Over time Christianized and absorbed into larger European feudal order b. Culture 1. Warrior-centered worldview afterlife for fighters 2. Polytheistic religion anthropomorphic nature gods Thor thunder god 3. Economy based on plunder/agriculture 4. Legal assemblies tings doubled as councils and courts 5. runic written language with magical attributes 6. skilled metal castings and well-made knitwear c. Effects on Europe 1. Raided/conquered most of coastal Europe down to Mediterranean a. expert sailors/fierce warriors didnt need coast to navigate 2. Settled Iceland, Greenland, England, Scotland, Ireland, France 3. Established trade routes 4 By forcing nations to defend from attacks a. Eventually led to the centralizing of authority 5. Normans on England a. Henry II greatest early Norman king 1. Jury trials 2. Royal circuit judges to settle disputes 3. Married Eleanor of Aquitaine previous queen of France a. Parts of France absorbed by England 4. Era of expansion 5. Handled nobles b. Successors drained royal coffers while protecting lands 1. Last of sons King John forced to sign Magna Carta a. British tradition of shared powers b. Centuries later nobles become parliament c. Golden Age of Pericles reestablished in Medieval Times 5. Arabs a. Effects on Africa 1. Trade contacts a. Swahili Coast b. Part of Indian Ocean Trade network c. Already had ties from Roman times d. African goods could reach China 1. Chinese vessels even made African coast 2. Slavery capturing Africans, forcing into bondage 3. Brought religion to sub-Saharan and east coast a. In comparison to North Africa, effect not nearly as extensive b. Leaders adopted to validate rule c. Traders adopted to secure trade contacts d. Majority of lower classes didnt adopt, maintained old views B. Migration of agricultural peoples 1. Bantu migrations a. Overview 1. Few common threads shared by many peoples of sub-Saharan Africa 2. 1000 BCE began to move from homeland of west central Africa 3. by 1000 CE had settled in almost all parts of continent South of Africa 4. played greatest roll in shaping cultural, ethnic and linguistic character 5. Changed population increased from hunter-gatherer to agricultural based d. Culture 1. Religion a. Religion animistic belief in spirits of the natural world 2. Language a. Over time, each group developed own language/cultural tradition b. mixed with Arabic to form Swahili c. did not have written language i. oral tradition preserved by griots e. Social 1. Women a. omen respected i. child bearers ii. shared agricultural work 2. Class a. centered around age grade 1. cohort group a. people of same age shared responsibilities, experiences f. Economics 1. Farming/pastoralism a. Spread knowledge of agricultural techniques b. Followed course of Congo river, farming fertile land c. Taught foragers techniques of cattle-raising d. Required additional source of nutrition with banana from Malay sailors i. Spread through reverse pattern of Bantu migration 2. Spread knowledge of iron-working a. Not sure if they got iron-working from Kush or independently b. Facilitated crop cultivation 3. property held communally a. wealth determined by number of slaves, not quantity of land g. Politics 2. Stateless societies primary political organization a. Organized around family/kinship groups b. Led by respected family member 2. European peoples to east/central Europe a. Great Migration of Germanic and Asiatic 1. Some settled permanently 2. Kingdoms tended to be unsophisticated/short-lived 3. As Barbarian tribes became less nomadic, played key roles b. 200 to 1000 CE Great Age of Migrations 1. Goths, Angles, Saxons, Franks, Lombards, and Vikings a. Initially seen as a threat b. Eventually settled 1. Played key role in developing ethnicities/cultures C. Consequences of plague pandemics in the fourteenth century 1. Black Death Bubunic Plague a. Carried from Asia on ships b. Effects 1. Loss in faith 2. Localized mob violence against lepers/Jews 3. Wages skyrocketed supply and demand 4. Preoccupation with death art 5. Medieval doctors lost prestige 6. Certain saints venerated as able to stop plague 7. Landowners raised rents to make up for cost a. Led to peasant revolts 8. Widespread fear/social upheaval 9. If plague didnt kill you, irrational choices would D. Growth and role of cities 1. Growth of cities a. As populations grew, people needed to spread out 1. Made more crowded conditions on manor/in cities b. Creation of guilds labor groups that maintain monopoly 1. Restricted membership, established prices/quality standards c. Cities become larger, more opportunities 1. Pulled more from the countryside 2. Cities also grew because they were established as centers of civilization a. Constantinople built to be city center 3. Capitals created to create aura of rising empire a. Islamic Empire moves to Baghdad b. Japan moves to Heian c. Mongols built Smarkand 3. Location of universities 4. Leads to more cultural diffusion a. People who would have never interacted, now interact c. Encouraged specialization of labor 1. shopkeepers, artisans, tradespeople, laborers d. Pilgrimages constantly on move 1. Rome/Constantinople attracted to huge cathedrals 2. Islamic trip to Mecca most significant a. From vast reaches of Islamic empire to Mecca b. Think of Mansa Musa d. Growth of cities due to increased trade 1. Towns located near rivers/waterways 2. Became marketplaces where goods could be sold e. Butovercrowded, polluted, people lived in abject poverty f. Benefit immunity from feudal obligations 1. Year and a day rule g. Urbanization in high Middle Ages 1. service providers/craftspeople set up businesses in towns stimulates growth a. barbers, blacksmiths, coopers (barrels), jewelers, tanners, innkeepers, wine/beer merchants 2. Cities had to plan growth, regulate business, collect taxes 3. Wealthy towns in Italy invested in new buildings/statuary for beautification VIII. Diverse interpretations A. What are the issues involved in using cultural areas rather than states as units of analysis 1. Political boundaries a. Yes, they might have centralized government, butdifferent people forced to live together b. More centralized you get, the more organized you are, butcultures oftentimes keep people united more than government c. Political boundaries oftentimes based on convenient geographic factors, but dont take cultural differences into account 2. Cultural Boundaries a. During post-classical era easier to write about regions in terms of cultural areas 1. Muslim World 2. Jewish Community b. Religion a good way to divide 1. Christian sphere, Islamic sphere, Hindu sphere, Buddhist sphere 2. butsome overlap (Confucianism and Buddhism) 3. andsome are quite different (Eastern Europe vs. Western Europe) c. Consider grouping the world into cultures that interacted vs. cultures that didnt B. What are the sources of change nomadic migrations versus urban growth 1. Nomadic Migrations 2. Urban Growth a. As populations grew, people needed to spread out 1. Made more crowded conditions on manor/in cities b. Creation of guilds labor groups that maintain monopoly 1. Restricted membership, established prices/quality standards c. Cities become larger, more opportunities 1. Pulled more from the countryside 2. Cities also grew because they were established as centers of civilization a. Constantinople built to be city center 3. Capitals created to create aura of rising empire a. Islamic Empire moves to Baghdad b. Japan moves to Heian c. Mongols built Smarkand 3. Location of universities 4. Leads to more cultural diffusion a. People who would have never interacted, now interact c. Pilgrimages constantly on move 1. Rome/Constantinople attracted to huge cathedrals 2. Islamic trip to Mecca most significant a. From vast reaches of Islamic empire to Mecca b. Think of Mansa Musa d. Growth of cities due to increased trade 1. Towns located near rivers/waterways 2. Became marketplaces where goods could be sold e. Butovercrowded, polluted, people lived in abject poverty f. Benefit immunity from feudal obligations 1. Year and a day rule g. Urbanization in high Middle Ages 1. service providers/craftspeople set up businesses in towns stimulates growth a. barbers, blacksmiths, coopers (barrels), jewelers, tanners, innkeepers, wine/beer merchants 2. Cities had to plan growth, regulate business, collect taxes 3. Wealthy towns in Italy invested in new buildings/statuary for beautification C. Was there a world economic network in this period 1. By 1200 CE, the world was very interconnected a. Europe trading with Islamic world and Russia b. Islamic world trading with Africa, India, China c. India trading with China, East Africa d. China trading with Japan/S. East Europe e. So.goods could go from England to Persia to India to Japan or 1. Muscovy to Mali f. not controlled by one entity/one trading organization 1. Web of interconnected parts 2. Lots of managers at each site 2. Butis it direct/indirect trade a. Many intermediaries b. Europe dependent on Silk Road/nomadic leaders 1. Can be shut down easily due to ruling parties c. The Americas Australia Southern Africa If 3 of 7 continents not involved D. Were there common patterns in the new opportunities available to and constraints placed on elite women in this period Overview could play key political, social, economic roles, but conduct strictly regulated 1. Europe a. Negatives 1. Chivalry idea that women are delicate, beautiful, need to be protected 2. Traditional roles of homemaker/childcare provider 3. Code of chivalry reinforced women as weak/subordinate b. Positives 1. Could exert great deal of political and cultural influence a. Aristocratic heir to rich property/kingdom extremely important 2. Managed estates and accounts in mens absence 3. Mothers of young kings whose fathers died served as regents/advisors 4. Some non Germanic kingdoms could see women take throne 5. Eleanor of Aquitaine richest heiress of France a. Married to Louis VII of France b. Henry II of medieval England 6. Convents offered women opportunities a. Service in communities 7. Women in towns a bit more freedom a. Allowed to participate in trade/craft guilds 2. China a. Negatives 1. Subject to restrictions 2. Women needed to produce dowry 3. Marriages made to benefit groom 4. Foot-binding crippling to look tiny/dainty b. Positives 1. Inheritance and property rights 2. Retained control of dowry after divorce/husbands death IX. Major Comparisons and Snapshots A. Japanese and European feudalism B. Developments in political and social institutions in both eastern and western Europe C. Compare the role and function of cities in major societies D. Compare Islam and Christianity E. Gender systems and changes, such as the impact of Islam F. Aztec Empire and Inca Empire G. Compare European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic world X. Examples of What You Need to Know A. Arab caliphate, but not the transition from Umayyad to Abbasid B. Mamluks, but not Almohads C. Feudalism, but not specific feudal monarchs such as Richard I D. Manorialism, but not the three-field system E. Crusading movement and its impact, but not specific crusades F. Viking exploration, expansion, and impact, but not individual explorers G, Mongol expansion and its impact, but not details of specific khanates H. Papacy, but not particular popes I. Indian Ocean trading patterns, but not Gujarati merchants

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