What is personality?
* When psychologists talk of personality, they mean a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. * The definition of personality most frequently use was produced by Gordon Allport nearly 70 years ago. Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of hose psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. * For our purposes, personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. * The measureable traits someone exhibits.
* Research has shown the personality tests are useful in hiring decisions and help managers forecast who is best for a job. * The most common means of measure personality is through self-report surveys, with which individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors, such as “I worry a lot about the future.” * Problems with self-reports: respondents may lie or practice impression management to create a good impression. They rate themselves about half a standard deviation more conscientious and emotionally stable then if they are taking the test to learn more about themselves. Bad mood can affect the accuracy of the score. * Observer-ratings surveys: provide independent assessment of personality. Done by co-worker or another observer, sometimes with or without the subject’s knowledge. * Observer-ratings surveys are better predictors of success on the job. * Combination of self-report and observer-reports predicts performance better than any one type of information.
* Personality is result of both heredity and environment but research seems to favor. * Heredity factors determined at conception: Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms. * Genetics accounts for about 50 percent of the personality similarities between twins and more than 30 percent of the similarities in occupational and leisure interests. * Personality is more changeable in adolescence and more stable among adults. * Personality traits: When some exhibits characteristics like shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy ambitious, loyal, and timid in a large number of situations.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
* MBTI: the most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world. 100 question personality test asking people how they usually feel or act in particular situation. Respondents are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P). * Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I): Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy. Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N): Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.” Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F): Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions. Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P): Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous. * Classifications together describe 16 personality types, identifying every person by trait from each of the four pairs. Example: Introverted/Intuitive/Thinking/Judging: INTJs- visionaries with original minds and great drive (p. 136). * Evidence is mixed about its validity but most is against it. It forces a person into one type or another: that is you’re either introverted or extraverted.
The Big Five Personality Model
* Five basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality. * Extraversion:...
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