November 27, 2012
“A Deck of Cards”
In examining the following problem: “A deck of 40 cards contains a different image on each (nature scenes, head shots on individuals, etc.). Imagine that your task in recall in a general way image or theme. Apart from repetition, list three encoding procedures you might use for memorizing them, providing for each procedure a brief example of how you would use it with cards such as these.”
1. Procedure: The first example that will be utilized in order to memorize the cards will be a technique called Free Recall. According to Bennet B. Murdock in his 1962 article entitled: “The Serial Position of Free Recall”: “Free Recall is a basic paradigm in the psychological study of memory. In this paradigm, participants study a list of items on each trial and then are prompted to recall the items in any order (hence the name “free recall”) (Murdock, pages 64). Example: In free recall studies, subjects are free to use any strategies they want. However , memory researcher found “it was easy to bias subjects toward organizing schemes by manipulating the content of the
list (Dewey). For example, suppose a subject has to memorize this list, which contains two obvious categories of items: Green, Nixon, Carter, Red, Bush, and Orange—After a retention period of 15 minutes, the subject might recall the items as follows: Nixon, Bush, Carter, Red, Green, Blue
2. Procedure: According to psychologywiki.com: “Cued recall is an aspect of recall in which the retrieval of information from memory is facilitated by the provision of cues. Example: The initial letter of a word to be remembered or suggestions as to the category in the which the item belongs.
3. Procedure: Serial Recall is the ability “to recall items or events in the order in which they occurred.”(Frensch, P.A.). Example: According to abcnew.com: “Countless psychological...
Cited: Frensch, P.A. (1994) Composition during serial learning: a Serial position effect. Journal of Experiment Psychology: Learning Memory , and Cognition.
Murdock, Bennett B. (1982) “The Serial Position of Free Recall” Psychology Reveiw
Psychologwiki.com (2011) “Cued Recall Definition”
Schenkman, Lauren (2009) “In the Brain, Seven Is a Magic Number.”
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