Shared environment – intelligence (IQ)
Unshared environment- mental illnesses (depression)
Genes and intelligence and evaluation of research
Twin studies, strength and limitations
Family studies, strength and limitations
Adoption studies, strength and limitations.
Same genotype for MZ twins
Minnesota twin study: longitudinal, large sample, cross-cultural, different age groups Brought up in different environments (for the most part)
Living together- influencing each other
Treated more similar by others
How different have the environments been
Samples are more representative
Environment = easier to measure/control
Easier to find participants (cheaper)
Shared- unshared environment
How similar is the shared environment?
Not similar genes
Families with both biological and adopted children give a lot of valuable data Limitations:
Socio-economic similarities between adoptive parents(middle class families) Representative sample size?
Age of children when being adopted?
Treated equally with biological children?
99.9% of our genes are shared with all other humans
biologically based mechanisms.
a change over time in the frequency with which particular genes- and the characteristics they produce= occur within an inbreeding population. Mutation-
Random events and accidents in gene reproduction during the division of cells. natural selection-
characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction within a particular environment will be more likely to be preserving the population, more common in the species over time. Biologically based mechanisms-
Ability to acquire any language spoken in the world (critical period) Newborns respond to faces
A need to belong o a group- fear of social...
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