Fracking Report

Topics: Water, Water resources, Water management Pages: 80 (23857 words) Published: April 12, 2013
Report on the effects of shale gas extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing in the Republic of Ireland.
2nd edition
Edited by Brigit Beemster and Ron Beemster BSc MSc,
for the
Fracking Research and Information Centre, Sligo
15 December 2011

Table of Contents:
Section

1
2
3
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
6
7
8
9
10

Page
Summary
The authors
Introduction
Licences in Ireland
Introduction to shale gas extraction
by means of hydraulic fracturing
Effects on the environment
Space
Earthquakes
Water
Air
Sand
Greenhouse gas emissions
Economic effects of shale gas extraction in Ireland
Roads
Tourism
Agriculture
Jobs
Gas
Revenue and markets
International financial markets
Regulation
Conclusions
Recommendations
References

2
3
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
25
26
26
34
34
36
38
39
40
41
43
48
49
51
52

1

Summary
This report is intended as a first attempt to summarize the effects that shale gas exploitation may have on the Irish environment and economy. It is meant as a discussion document and as a basis for further research in these fields. Currently, three companies hold a Licensing Option in Ireland to research if there are viable gas reserves under Irish soil. If successful, they intend to use hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) to exploit these resources.

To date, there has been no proper discussion about the possible consequences that this method of extraction may have in Ireland. Gas companies point out that it is perfectly safe, while environmentalists and action groups stress the negative effects and accidents. On top of that, there are no Irish or European regulations specifically for hydraulic fracturing.

To ensure that these different viewpoints will not lead to entrenched polarization of the issue, we recommend that before giving out any licences, the government should thoroughly investigate the effects that shale gas fracking will have on all aspects of the environment, the economy and our health, and put legislation in place to prevent any deterioration.

Equally important, the government should share the results of this research with the rest of the population to make sure everybody can make an informed decision on whether or not this process should be allowed in Ireland.

If we do decide to go ahead with shale-gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing in Ireland, there should be a mandatory Life Cycle Analysis of new projects including an Environmental Impact Analysis. Only a full cost/benefit analysis provides a proper base for a judgement about the relevance of individual projects and their justification. Although hydraulic fracturing can and has been carried out safely and successfully for many years in both North America and Europe, accidents have occurred and have been widely reported. Therefore there are many concerns about the possible environmental effects of accidents, especially on water and air quality. There are also concerns about the increase in greenhouse gas emissions from the extraction of more fossil fuels. Both these accidents and the emissions from shale gas exploitation can be mitigated by proper well construction methods, “green” completions and good regulations and enforcement. However, these will make the exploitation more expensive and possibly non-viable, while enforcement of new regulations will put an extra financial strain on government and local councils. There are also some unavoidable impacts on the environment, specifically the use of large amounts of water, the construction of wellpads and roads in rural areas and forestry and the large amounts of truck traffic and its associated air pollution. The economic effects largely depend on those environmental effects. Job losses in tourism are likely when wellpads are constructed every few kilometers in tourist destination areas and heavy traffic causes both nuisance and air pollution. If pollution or major accidents occur, job losses would be...


References: 1. J Poto nik, GH Oettinger and C Hedegaard, 2011, Letter to the Members of the
European Parliament, Brussels, 22 July 2011, ref
2. Cuadrilla Resources, 2011, ITRE hearing, 5 October 2011
3
5. F Gény, 2010, “Can Unconvenntional Gas be a Game Changer in European Gas
Markets?” The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, University of Oxford,
6. D Guckian, 2011, “Report and letter from Des Guckian, of Carrick group”,
Fracking Matters Newsletter (22) – 11 November 2011, page 3,
7. Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, 2010, “Onshore
Petroleum Licensing over the Northwest Carboniferous Basin and the Clare
10. P McMahon, 2011, Letter to Dr Robert Anthony Bazley, re: Application from
Tamboran Resources Pty Ltd, for an Onshore Licensing Option in the North
15. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, 2011, “Petroleum Licences in
Northern Ireland, June 2011” www.detini.gov.uk
16. E Mills, 2011, “Ireland Orders Investigation into Shale Gas Fracking”,
http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/ireland-orders-investigations-into-shale-gasfracking-2868, posted 6 October 2011
20. Groundwater Protection Council Oklahoma City and ALL Consulting Tulsa,
2009, “Modern shale gas development in the US, A primer”, US Department of
21. S. Lechtenböhmer, M Altmann, S Capito, Z Matra, W Weindrorf, W Zittel, 2011,
“Impacts of shale gas and shale oil extraction on the environment and on human
26. A McLoughlin, 2011, “Shale Gas Extraction, The Next Boom?”, Presentation
given in Ballyshannon, Co
27. R Moorman, 2011, statement made to R Beemster after Tamboran Resources Pty
Ltd Community Information Meeting, Ballyconnell, Co
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