top-rated free essay

Demographic Transition Theory

By Mahalia Changu-Itumeleng Oct 05, 2013 525 Words

Demographic transition theory is the theory that societies progress from a pre-modern regime of high fertility and high mortality to a post-modern regime of low fertility and low mortality. The theory is explained by a model which is an idealized picture of demographic change. The aim of the theory is to explain why a society moves from high mortality and fertility to low mortality and fertility. Demographic transition is the actual change from high mortality and fertility to low mortality and fertility. There are many causes of why societies move from high mortality and fertility to low mortality and fertility and these are best explained by the demographic transition model. As societies move from pre-industrial time to postindustrial periods population density changes due to change in values, technology, ways of living and many other variables. ASSUMPTIONS

The demographic transition theory shares the same assumptions as the Neo Malthusian theory that economic development lowers fertility which is evident in the model that as societies move from pre-industrial to postindustrial the number of births are lowered. It also assumes that the only way of controlling population growth is through the use of contraception. CRITICS

The transition theory is claimed to be the direct outcome of European countries the observation have taken place a long time ago and is outdated. This statement is true because the theory and model predicts what European countries have gone through not what all countries and nations would go through. The theory is only based on birth and death and does not include other aspects of population dynamics such as external migration STAGES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION

This theory has been known to have four stages but a fifth stage has recently evolved and it currently has five stages and these explain mortality and fertility. STAGE ONE: HIGH FLACTUATING
This is has high birth and death rates and population growth is is small. Reasons for high birth rates:
High death rates and infant mortality encourages more births Lack of family planning
Children are viewed as source of income
Reasons for high death rates:
Diseases as there are no proper medicines
Famine due to few people
Lack of education
Lack of health care
High birth rate and declining death rate. The total population begins to expand rapidly Reasons for high birth rates:
Religious beliefs
People used to having many children
Reasons for declining death rates:
Improved hygiene
Improved sanitation
Improved food production and storage
Falling birth rate and continuing to fall death rate. Population growth slows down Reasons for decreasing birth rate:
Women are working as it’s the industrial period
Improvement on contraceptive technology
Change in valuation of women beyond motherhood
Presences for smaller families as they are cheaper to maintain Reasons for decreasing death rates:
Better healthcare
Improved sanitation
Low birth and death rates and population growth is small and fertility continues to decline. Reasons for low birth rates:
Family planning
Improved status of women
Change in personal lifestyle
Reasons for low death rates:
Improved healthcare
Improved quality of living
Death slightly exceeds death rate and this causes population decrease.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • demographic transition

    ...2/11/2013 Demographic Transition Demographic Transition Demographic Transition |3 • Demographic transition (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. • This is typically demonstrated through a ...

    Read More
  • Demographic Transition and economic growth

    ... What is demographic transition? How can demographics of a country have an impact on its economic growth? Let me first address the first part of this question, Demographic transition refers to a change in the development stage of the country as it transgresses from a pre-industrialized era to an industrialized. The major cha...

    Read More
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of Demographic Transition Model

    ...Discuss Strengths and Weaknesses of the Demographic Transition Model The Demographic Transition Model is a partially fact based, partially theoretical model that shows birth, death rates and population over time. There are 5 different stages involved in it and almost every country applies to a particular one of those stages, for example The ...

    Read More
  • Demographic Dividend

    ...September 2004 Understanding the Demographic Dividend By John Ross A fresh reason for attending to fertility dynamics has emerged—the “demographic dividend.” As fertility rates fall during the demographic transition, if countries act wisely before and during the transition, a special window opens up for faster economic growth and huma...

    Read More
  • Demographic Dividend in India

    ...over relationship between population growth and economic development is there since the much criticized theory of Malthus in 18th century. Economist focused on the size of population and the growth of nation, but the composition of population age structure was not considered until the study of Coale and Hoover (1958), but in recent years, demogr...

    Read More
  • Demographic Transition

    ...2. The demographic transition model seeks to explain the transformation of countries from having high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. In developed countries this transition began in the eighteenth century and continues today. Less developed countries began the transition later and are still in the midst of earlier stages of t...

    Read More
  • Demographic Transition Model

    ...Question : “Examine how the demographic transition model may be applied to a named Caribbean society.” The demographic transition theory is the process by which some societies have moved from high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates as a result of technological development. The demographic transition model can be...

    Read More
  • Demography and Demographic Transition Phase

    ...* Define demographic transition. * Describe the 4 phases of demographic transition, including if the population is stable, growing, or declining in each. · * According to demographers, what factors lead to a decline in the crude birth rates (CBR) and crude death rates (CDR) in the epidemiologic and fertility phases of the demographic ...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.