BIO prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

Topics: Cell, DNA, Organelle Pages: 5 (784 words) Published: October 2, 2014
Prokaryotic cells vs. Eukaryotic cells

Two Fundamentally Different Classes of Cells
charcteristic
Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Cells
word origins
pro=before
karyon=kernel or nucleus
eu=true
karyon=kernel or nucleus

Domains of Bacteria
1. archaea or archaebacteria, more ancient
in soil and water
also in hostile environments, many without oxygen
high salt/brine
methanogens
halophiles
thermoacidophiles
hot acidic springs

2. bacteria or eubacteria, more
recent, very different
biochemistry from archaea
regular bacteria
in soil, water, pathogens
cyanobacteria
Animal
Plant
Fungi
Protist
origins
first to appear in the fossil record, not physically changed today most likely evolved from prokaryotes

SIMILARITIES

building blocks
carbon compounds
amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, monosaccharides
Functioning units
proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates
information storage
info expression
DNA, use the same language, genes
RNA, information transfer, same language
Protein prduction
Proteins are made the same way - by the ribosome
metabolism
use many of the same biochemical pathways
Cellular boundary
plasma membrane
Cell wall
ridgidity, cellular protection
peptidoglycan; composed of carbohydrates and peptides
plants, ridgidity, cellular protection
(not in animal cells)
cellulose, carbohydrates

DIFFERENCES
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
size
Small, few microns
Large, average cell is 5-20 m, frog egg is 1mm
~10 times the length
~1000 times the volume
nuclear region
nucleoid, poorly demarcated region of the cell where the DNA is located not bounded by membrane
nucleus, bounded by the nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope gene structure
no introns
introns
transcription and
translation
occur simultaneously for each transcript
no RNA processing
one RNA polymerase
occurs at different times and different places in the cell
RNA is processed
three RNA polymerases
chromosomes
single molecule of DNA
circular
not paired
not covered with proteins=naked
attached to the plasma membrane
multiple chromosomes
linear DNA
paired
covered with proteins and packaged into chromatin
attached to the nuclear membrane
membrane bound organelles
few,
mesosome (chromosomal attachment)
photosynthetic membranes of blue green bacteria [cyanobacteria] many (*next table), nucleus,
mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, chloroplasts, lysosomes, peroxisome
non-membrane- bound structures
+ribosomes: smaller,
fewer components
+minimal cytoskeleton
+no centrioles
+flagellae, fimbrae, pili, naked-not membrane covered
+ribosomes: larger,
more components
+cytoskeleton: made up of micro-tubules, filaments & molecular motors. control shape and movement of the cell +paired centrioles
+(cilia and flagellae, membrane covered)
communication within the cell
Passive diffusion (small cell size)
No energy usage
Active transport (large cell size)
directed the delivery of molecules and vesicles from one part of the cell to another energy required
locomotion
rotating flagellae
undulating flagellae, cilia
pseudopodia, amoeboid movement
cell division
fission: growth of membrane and cell wall between the daughter cells mitosis: chromosomal condensation, spindle formation, separation of duplicated chromosomes, formation of new nuclei, pinching off of plasma membrane forming daughter cells

sex
conjugation, transfer of some of the DNA from one cell to another through the F pilus meiosis, formation of haploid (1N) gametes
fertiliztion, fusion of gametes, formation of 2N zygote
cell specialization
not usually found
specialization is not complex
extensive specialization in multicellular organisms

Organelles and other cellular structures and their functions Prokaryotes

Cell Wall
rigid structure, slimy
composed of carbohydrates, peptides, teichoic acids
Plasma membrane
Outer...
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