Important Civil Rights, Concepts, Events, and People
African American Rights:
1. Executive Order 9981 (Truman) – July 1948 – established the equality of treatment and opportunity in the armed forces 2. Brown v The Board of Education of Topeka – 1954 – series of cases involving racial segregation in public schools; Supreme Court decision: unconstitutional 3. Southern Christian Leadership Conference – 1957-present – originally led by Martin Luther King, Jr., this organization was responsible for the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the March on Washington, and famous I Have a Dream speech 4. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee – 1960-1970s – founded by Ella Baker and other college students, the SNCC was most famous for sit-ins, freedom rides, and the March on Washington (alongside the SCLC) 5. Malcolm X – 1925-1965 – civil rights leader who, in contrast to Dr. King, Jr., wished to continue the separation between blacks and whites, but to strengthen the black community and achieve this “by any means necessary,” allowing violence
Black Muslims – followers of Wallace Fard, who founded the Nation of Islam in the 1930s; Malcolm X was a supporter and spokesperson for around a decade 6. Stokely Carmichael – 1941-1998 – chairman of SCLC, working with Dr. King, Jr., but shifted his beliefs from nonviolence to those of the Black Panthers and promoted “Black Power” 7. Eldridge Cleaver – 1935-1998 – author, leader, and supporter of Black Panthers; “You're either part of the problem or part of the solution”
Black Panthers – 1967-present – socialist civil rights party founded and led by Huey Newton; focused on police brutality of black people 8. Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Congressional law that deals with occupation, where discrimination against gender or race is disallowed in hiring, promoting, and firing 9. 24th Amendment – 1964 – “The right of citizens...to vote...shall not be denied...by reason of failure to pay...tax;” poll taxes in some southern states had previously prevented African Americans from voting 10. Voting Rights Act of 1965 – blacks had faced significant difficulties in voting, especially in the south, where they were forced to pay taxes or take literacy tests, and even risked being harassed when registering; now blacks could safely vote 11. Kerner Report – 1968 – commission’s report on society, recommending President Johnson to integrate blacks by creating jobs and making decent housing (he refused); “Our Nation Is Moving Toward Two Societies, One Black, One White—Separate and Unequal” 12. Affirmative Action – equal opportunity employment for all, no matter the gender, race, color, or religion; began in 1961 with JFK’s Executive Order 10925 13. Bakke v Regents of University of California – 1978 – Allan Bakke had applied to U of Cal’s medical school twice but was rejected because 16 out of 100 spots in each class were reserved for minorities, and although Bakke was more qualified than any of the 32 minorities in 2 years, his application was declined; Supreme Court decision: 5 for Bakke, 4 against – he was not accepted because of his race 14. Great Society – 1964 – President Johnson’s “war on poverty;” Wilderness Protection Act, funding for schools & art/artists, Voting Rights Act, Medicare created, housing act, pollution control, Immigration Act (“ended discriminatory quotas based on ethnic origin”)
I. Supreme Court Decisions
15. Brown v Bd. of Ed – 1954 – series of cases involving racial segregation in public schools; Supreme Court decision: unconstitutional 16. Heart of Atlanta Motel -1964 – a part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was making racial discrimination that affected commerce of public places of accommodation unlawful; this motel refused to accept blacks and the Supreme Court ruled unanimously against it and its actions 17. Bakke v U of Cal – 1978 – Allan Bakke had applied to U of Cal’s medical school twice but was rejected because 16...
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