APES Ch. 9 Outline

Topics: Water, Groundwater, Aquifer Pages: 6 (1942 words) Published: April 8, 2014
CHAPTER 9: WATER RESOURCES

Dams and Salmon on the Klamath River
Damaged from electricity and farmers have settle the land and diverted water for irrigation recently→ salmon population greatly reduced, local NA tribes and commercial fishing industry has suffered. Hydroelectric dams installed when water started to drain for agricultural use Migrating salmon died off on 2002 due to warm water, growth of toxic algae, and diseases Dams removed in 2009

Water is abundant, but usable water is rare
70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by water, but 97% is salt water. One fourth of the less than 3% of freshwater is found underground. Remaining three fourths above ground is found mostly in ice and glaciers. Usable water by humans is found in the form of streams, rivers, wetlands, and lakes Groundwater exists in the multitude of small spaces found within permeable layers of rock and sediment called aquifers. Often porous rock covered by soil

Because water can easily flow in out of such aquifers, they are called unconfined aquifers Aquifers surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock or clay are called confined aquifers, impedes water flow to or from the aquifer The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates the rock or soil is called the water table. considered to be the surface of groundwater in an area

Groundwater recharge is when water from precipitation percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer confined aquifers cannot be recharged unless the impermeable layer has an opening at the land’s surface that can serve as a recharge area Water from some aquifers naturally percolates up to the ground surface as springs which serve as a natural source of water for freshwater aquatic biomes, and they can be directly used by humans as sources of drinking water. Artesian wells is when a hole is drilled into a confined aquifer which releases pressure on the water, thus allowing it to burst out of the aquifer and rise up in the well. If the pressure is great the water can rise all the way up to the ground surface, in which case no pump is require to extract the water from the ground. age of aquifer water varies as well as the rate at which they are recharged, could be last year or last week. water from unconfined aquifers is much more likely to be contaminated with chemicals released by human activities confined aquifers are very slowly recharged, over 10,000-20,000 years. water in these are much older and less likely to be contaminated. Large scale withdrawal from a confined aquifer is unsustainable because the water is not balanced by recharge Largest aquifer in the United States is Ogallala in the great plains, recharged slowly, not up to pace with the rate of water withdrawal Plains could run out of water during this century

Cone of depression is an area where there is no longer any groundwater Rapid pumping of deep well can cause adjacent, shallow wells to go dry Sometimes, pumping fresh water out of wells faster than the aquifer can recharge promises water quality Saltwater intrusion is when the adjacent salt water is then able to infiltrate the area of rapid pumping, making the water in the wells very salt. It is a common problem in coastal areas. Surface water is the fresh water that exists above the ground, including streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and wetlands World’s three largest rivers are the Amazon, Congo, and Yangtze Many rivers naturally overflow their banks during periods of spring snowmelt or heavy rainfall, the excess water then spreads onto the land adjacent to the river called the floodplain These floodwaters deposit nutrient-rich sediment on the floodplain, improving the fertility of the soil Ponds and lakes usually form in depressions in the landscape that are filled by precipitation, runoff that is not absorbed by the surrounding landscape, and groundwater that flows into depression To determine lake size, surface area, depth, and volume are...
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