Pg. 328-330 “field note: changing greens!”
* Ranchlands of South Dakota hold soybeans
* Roundup Ready Soybeans (genetically modified)
* Roundup is a weed killer produced by Monsanto – they have corn, cotton, and other crops that are resistant to roundup too * ORGANIC AGRICULTURE – production of crops without modification * Organic food sales: 1980 was $200 million then 1990 was $1.5 billion and by 2003 was $10 billion (growing 20% annually over the last decade) * Only 2% of all food sales in the country but is predicted to hit 10% within a decade * Best organic products in U.S. are fruits and vegetables with 42% of the sales here – followed by nondairy beverages at 15% and dairy at 13% * Organic products are sold in 73% of conventional grocery stores in America
Pg. 337 “field note”
* Niarobi-mombasa road in Kenya.
* Goats crossed with gazelles are called elands. They were docile, manageable, and in good health.
Pg. 343 “field note”
* 1983 Gambia the women were the traditional growers. They staged a strike but the control was now under male heads of household who reaped income from the women’s labor.
Pg. 330-339 “what is agriculture and where did it begin?” * AGRICULTURE –the deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food, feed, and fiber. * Only half of all food staple grains are consumed directly by the people; the other half is used for feed for the livestock. * Agriculture is a primary industry.
* PRIMARY ACTIVITIES – drawing out resources and raw materials from the earth. * SECONDARY ACTIVITES – to take a primary product and manufacture it into a product. * TERTIARY ACTIVITIES – part of the service industry: selling the goods and providing a service to people. * QUATERNARY ACTIVITIES – a subset of tertiary activities; divided into quaternary (exchange for money or goods) and quinary (research and education). * EX: Guatemalan agriculture sector accounts for 22.7% of GDP and 50% labor. Canadian agriculture sector accounts for 2.3% GDP and 3% labor. However, the tertiary in Canada accounts for 71% GDP and 75% labor and the tertiary sector in Guatemala accounts for 57.9% GDP and 35% labor. * In the U.S. less than 2% workforce is involved in agriculture. * In 1950: 1 farmer produced enough to feed 27 people. Today: 1 farmer produces enough to feed 135 people. * The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture said in 2002 that $500,000 were farms with the highest total production. These farms accounted for 43.9% of agricultural goods in 2002. (compared to 28.9% in 1989). HUNTING, GATHERING AND FISHING
* Oak forests in north America provided an abundance of nuts, which natives collected * Pacific ocean natives adapted to salmon fishing
* Great plains were hunting bison herds
TERRAIN AND TOOLS
* Clubs, bones, spears, and stones were the first tools. The controlled use of fire was important too. They also trapped fish to eat. THE FISRT AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
* Carl Sauer focused on the hearths of the first agricultural revolution. * PLANT DOMESTICATION started in southeast and south Asia more than 14,000 years ago. * ROOT CROPS – crops that are reproduced by cultivating either roots or cuttings from the plant (manioc, cassava, yams, and sweet potatoes) * SEED CROPS – plants that are cultivated by planting seeds (began in northwestern south America) crucial development in southwest Asia or fertile Crescent: the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS
* Began as early as 8,000 years ago. Main animals are Goats, Pigs, and Sheep. * Some animals were docile and easily penned up. EX: goats in Zagros Mountains around 10,000 years ago and sheep in Anatolia (Turkey) around 9,500 years ago. * Around 40% species of higher animals have been domesticated. * According to Jarred Diamond, out of 148 “wild” animals we have domesticated 14 successfully. Each domesticated by around 4,500 years ago....
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