A Hermeneutical Critique on the Conquest and Occupation of the Land Belonging to Others: from the Perspective of the Indigenous Peoples.

Topics: Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Culture Pages: 19 (7210 words) Published: August 24, 2013
A Hermeneutical Critique on the Conquest and Occupation of the land belonging to others: From the perspective of the indigenous peoples. Prepared by: Kyrshanborlang Mawlong, Lamjingshai and Friends Introduction: This study is an attempt to dwell upon the historical event in the ancient world of the Hebrew Bible. A familiar narration about the Israelite, taken into exile in Egypt, later, the episode from Moses up to the entry into Canaan under the terrific leadership of Joshua. This is a turning point for the history of the Israelites; this Meta happening have been usually considered as an important dates in records, conventionally it was interpreted as an act of victory. The main objective of this study is therefore to revisit the event from the other aspect. The Canaanites as indigenous indwellers of this captivated region. They were defeated under the influential forces which are foreign originated in nature. The paper starts with a brief biblical survey about the time when the Israelites, reached the promise land. A clear cut understanding about the term indigenous people is the next steps that follow. Salient features of the indigenous people were selectively highlighted. Categorizing the Canaanite as indigenous people is a careful consideration done here. Nearer to the end there is an application of hermeneutical critique on the settlement, but before that, since this is no longer a conventional interpretation, a brief preference for methods and approach were inserted. The discourse will be put in empty space without contemporary challenges, for this reason it occupy certain part before reaching the reflection. An attempt has been made to simplify all these in a comprehendible manner, though there are some unavoidable portions.

1. Summary of Israelite’s Conquest and Occupation of the Promise Land: Biblical Perspective: Some scholars they marked the events during the 13th century BCE; while N. Lemche, dates it to the 14th century BCE. This is a hint that the event occured somewhere around this period. The biblical accounts of the conquest cover four main areas: Transjordania, the Central Hill country, the Southern region, and the North. A summary of Israel’s conquest is made in the book of Joshua. Encamped at Gilgal, Israel was realistically prepared for Canaan as God’s chosen nation. Circumcision is a rite for the new covenant and of the promise God had made to bring them into the land. Entrance into the land was also marked by the Passover observance and cessation of the provision of manna. The people would henceforth eat of the fruits of the land.

Joshua himself was prepared for conquest. By a theophany God imparted to Joshua the consciousness that the conquest of the land was not dependent solely upon him but that he was divinely commissioned and empowered. The conquest of Jericho was a sample victory. Israel simply followed the instructions of the Lord. The Israelites marched around the city seven times, the walls of the city fell and they could enter to take possession. Ai was the next objective for conquest. Assured of success, Joshua renewed his plans to conquer Ai. The enemy forces were lured into the open so that the thirty thousand men who had stationed beyond the city by night were able to attack Ai from the near and set it afire. The defenders were annihilated, their king was hanged and the site was reduced to rubble. When Israel makes its second attack, the people of Ai as well as the inhabitants of Bethel vacate their cities to pursue the enemy (Josh. 8: 17).

Gibeon was one of the great cities of Palestine. When it capitulated to Israel, the king of Jerusalem was greatly alarmed. In response to his appeal other Amorite kings from Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon formed a coalition with him to attack the city of Gibeon. Having made an alliance with Israel, the beleaguered city immediately dispatched messengers to appeal for aid from that quarter. By an all night march from...

Bibliography: Abraham, K.C. “Towards An Indian Christian Identity.” In Christian Identity and Cultural Nationalism: Challenges and Opportunities. Edited by E.C.John & Samson Prabhakar. Bangalore: BTESSC/ SATHRI, 2008.
Anderson, G.W. The History and Religion of Israel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Broadie, Elsie. The Chosen Nation; Book one; Founders and Leaders. Headington Hill Hall: The Religious Education Press, 1968.
Ceresko, A. R. “Potsherds and Pioneers: Recent Research on the Origin of Israel.” Indian Theological Studies, vol.34 (1997): 11-20.
Convillle, J.G. Mc. “Joshua, Book of.” In Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible, et. Al,. Kevin. J. Vanhoozer (Michigan: Baker Book House, 2005), 400-402.
Dias, Ivan Cardinal. “Identities, Aspirations and Destines of Indigenous Peoples of India.” In Understanding Tribal Cultures: for effective education. Edited Joseph Anikuzhikattil et. al,. New Delhi: Commission For Education and Culture, 2003.
Fachhai, Laiu. The Land Must Be Distributed Equally: The Promise and Covenant Aspects of Land in the Old Testament. ISPCK: Delhi, 2009.
Gunneberg, Antonius H.J. “Israel.” In Encyclopedia of Christianity. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Vol.2 E-I (Michigan: William B.Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001), 766-771.
Harrison, R.K
Hnuni, R. L. The People of God in the Old Testament. New Delhi: Lakshi Publishers, 2012.
Ignatius, Peter. “Interpretative Theories of Israelite Settlement.” In Jeevadhara: The Struggle for the Past: Historiography Today XXXII/187 (January 2002): 95-106.
Joseph, Pushpa. “Indigenous Knowledge for Survival A Descriptive Enquiry.” In Jeevandhara : A journal For Socio-Religious Research XXXIX/ 229 (January-2009): 74-87.
Kaiser, Walter C. A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars. USA: Broadman and Hollman Publisher, 1998.
Legrand, Lucien. The Bible on Culture; Belong or Dissenting? Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2001.
Libolt, C. G. “Canaanites.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia vol.1. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979), 4587-4591.
Longchar, A. Wati. “Tribal Theology: Issues, Method and Perspective.” In Journal of Tribal Studies, vol.1 (December 1997): 76-80.
Longkumer, Awala
Longkumer, Awala. “Voices of the Indigenous People.” In National Council of Churches Review (March 2006): 50-56.
Longkumer, Limatula. Tribal Feminist Reading of the Bible, Tribal Theology and The Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance. Edited by Yangkahao Vashum. Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011.
Majhi, Murali Dhar. “Cultural Rights of Indigenous People.” In Social Action: A Quarterly Review of Social Trends vol. 60 (Oct-Dec 2010): 405-408.
Raj, P. J. Sonjeeva. “The Call of the Indigenous People.” In Asia Journal of Theology vol. 10 (April 1996):62-66.
Rhoades, B.L. The Old Testament. New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1960.
Rojesh, Seram. “Whither Indigenous Peoples and their Culture?” In Social Action: A Quarterly Review of Social Trends vol. 60 (October-December 2010): 360-366.
Satterthwaite, P.E. and D.W. Baker, “Nation of Canaan.” In Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch. Edited by T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker. Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1984, 598-605.
Syiemlieh, B
Temsuyanger, “Israelite Tribal As Resistance And Revolt Against Domination: Some Insights For Coalition Politics In Contemporary India.” In Journal of Tribal Studies, .XII/2 (July-December 2007): 74-89.
Thanzauva, K. “Tribal/Indigenous Interpretation of the Bible: A Keynote Address.” In Tribal Theology and the Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance. Edited by Ynagkahao Vashum. Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011.
Vashum, Yangkahao. “Colonialism, Christian Mission and Indigenous: An Examination from Asian Indigenous.” In Journal of Theologies and Cultures in Asia, Vol. 7&8 (2008/2009): 74-79.
--------------------------------------------
[ 2 ]. R. L Hnuni, The People of God in the Old Testament ( New Delhi: Lakshi Publishers, 2012), 38.
[ 3 ]. G.W. Anderson, The History and Religion of Israel (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 28-31.
[ 6 ]. B.L.Rhoades, The Old Testament (New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1960), 95-100.
[ 10 ]. Awala Longkumer, “Voices of the Indigenous People,” in National Council of Churches Review (March 2006): 52-54.
[ 11 ]. Murali Dhar Majhi, “Cultural Rights of Indigenous People,” in Social Action: A Quarterly Review of Social Trends vol. 60 (Oct-Dec 2010): 406-407.
[ 12 ]. P. J. Sonjeeva Raj, “The Call of the Indigenous People,” in Asia Journal of Theology, vol. 10 (April 1996):64-65.
[ 15 ]. Pushpa Joseph, “Indigenous Knowledge for Survival A Descriptive Enquiry,” in Jeevandhara : A journal For Socio-Religious Research XXXIX/ 229 (January-2009): 82.
[ 17 ]. Seram Rojesh, “Whither Indigenous Peoples and their Culture?” in Social Action: A Quarterly Review of Social Trends vol. 60 (October-December 2010): 364-365.
[ 20 ]. Elsie Broadie, The Chosen Nation; Book one; Founders and Leaders (Headington Hill Hall: The Religious Education Press, 1968), 71-73.
[ 21 ]. C. G. Libolt, “Canaanites,” in The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia vol.1, edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979), 4589.
[ 22 ]. K. Thanzauva, “Tribal/Indigenous Interpretation of the Bible: A Keynote Address,” in Tribal Theology And the Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance, edited by Ynagkahao Vashum (Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011), 20-23.
[ 23 ]. Limatula Longkumer, Tribal Feminist Reading of the Bible, Tribal Theology and The Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance, edited by Yangkahao Vashum (Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011), 140-141.
[ 25 ]. J.G. Mc Convillle, “Joshua, Book of,” in the Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible, et.al., Kevin. J. Vanhoozer (Michigan: Baker Book House, 2005), 400.
[ 26 ]. Laiu Fachhai, The Land Must Be Distributed Equally: The Promise and Covenant Aspects of Land in the Old Testament (ISPCK: Delhi, 2009), 23.
[ 27 ]. Walter C. Kaiser, A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars (USA: Broadman and Hollman Publisher, 1998), 145.
[ 28 ]. A. Wati Longchar, “Tribal Theology: Issues, Method and Perspective,” in Journal of Tribal Studies, vol.1 (December 1997): 76-80.
[ 29 ]. Peter Ignatius, “Interpretative Theories of Israelite Settlement,” in Jeevadhara: The Struggle for the Past: Historiography Today XXXII/187 (January 2002): 95-106.
[ 30 ]. Temsuyanger, “Israelite Tribal As Resistance And Revolt Against Domination: Some Insights For Coalition Politics In Contemporary India,” in Journal of Tribal Studies, .XII/2 (July-December 2007): 76-88.
[ 32 ]. R.K.Harrison, Old Testament Times (Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1970), 162.
[ 33 ]. Antonius H.J.Gunneberg, “Israel,” in Encyclopedia of Christianity, edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Vol.2 E-I (Michigan: William B.Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001), 769.
[ 35 ]. P.E. Satterthwaite and D. W. Baker, “Nation of Canaan,” in Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch, edited by T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker (Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1984), 600-605.
[ 37 ]. Lucien Legrand, The Bible on Culture; Belong or Dissenting? (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2001), 6-8.
[ 39 ]. Yangkahao Vashum, “Colonialism, Christian Mission and Indigenous: An Examination from Asian Indigenous,” in Journal of Theologies and Cultures in Asia, Vol. 7&8 (2008/2009): 75-78.
[ 40 ]. A. R. Ceresko, “Potsherds and Pioneers: Recent Research on the Origin of Israel,” Indian Theological Studies, vol.34 (1997): 11.
[ 41 ]. Awala Longkumer, “Experience of the Context: Socio-Political, Historical and Cultural Context of the Tribal,” in Critical Issues in Mission Among Tribals, edited by Awala Longkumer (Nagpur: NCCI, 2011), 36-37
[ 42 ]
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Critique of Goodfellas from a Marxist Perspective Essay
  • belonging Essay
  • Indigenous People Essay
  • Indigenous People Essay
  • Indigenous People Essay
  • Belonging Essay
  • Indigenous People Essay
  • Essay about Indigenous People

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free