* Jose Rizal
* born July 19, 2861 in Calamba, Laguna
* baptized by Rev. Rufino Collantes in the Catholic church of Calamba, June 22, 1861 * named “Jose” in honor of St. Joseph
* Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda
* Francisco Mercado Rizal – born in Binan, Laguna on May 11, 1818 and died in Manila on January 5, 1898 at the age of 80 * Teodora Alonso Realonda – born in Manila on November 8, 1826 and died in Manila on August 16, 1911 at the age of 85
* Ancestry of Rizal
* Great-great-grandfather was a man named Domingo Lam-co * Rizal’s ancestor was Lakan-Dula, the last Malayan king of Tondo * Gregorio, Manuel and Jose are Rizal’s 3 uncles, brothers of Teodora * Grandfathers – Lorenzo Alberto Alonso and Cipriano Alonso
* The Name “Rizal”
* The original name of the Rizal family was “Mercado” * The term “Rizal” came from the Spanish word racial which means “green field” or “new pasture”.
* The Rizal Family
* Were the first to build a large stone house in Calamba * First to own a carruaje
* First to have a home library
* First to educate their children in the colleges of Manila
* The Rizal Home
* One of the distinguished stone houses in Calamba during the Spanish times. * It was rectangular in shape, “of adobe stone and hardwood with a red-tiled roof”
* Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo (In memory of my town) – the poem Rizal wrote in 1876 when he was a student in Ateneo when he remembered his beloved town * Jose was jokingly called Ute
* The people in Calamba knew him as Pepe or Pepito
* Jose loved most the little Concha (Concepcion)
* Concha died of sickness in 1865
* Rizal was a religious boy. A scion of Catholic clan, born and bred in a wholesome atmosphere of Catholicism, and possessed of an inborn pious spirit, he grew up as a Catholic.
* On June 6, 1868, Jose and his father left Calamba to go on a pilgrimage to Antipolo, in order to fulfill his mother’s vow which was made when Jose was born.
* Jose’s first teacher was his Mother
* At the age of three, Jose learned the alphabet and prayers
* The story of the Moth – One of the stories told by Dona Teodora to Jose that made the profoundest impression on him.
Rizal’s three uncles
* They were Gregorio, Jose, and Manuel Alberto Alonso. Brothers of Dona Teodora. * Uncle Gregorio was a lover of books, instilled into Rizal’s mind a great love for books. * Uncle Jose was the youngest brother of Dona Teodora, he encouraged Rizal to paint, sketch and sculpture. * Uncle Manuel was a big, strong and husky man, looked after the physical training of Rizal and encouraged him to learn sports.
* The first known poem that he wrote was a Tagalog poem entitled Sa Aking Mga Kabata. He wrote it in appeal to our people to love our national language.
Influences on Rizal’s Boyhood
* Hereditary influence
* Environmental influence
* Aid of Divine Providence
* He attended a private school under Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz, who was reputed to be a good teacher * He was given further instruction by private tutors such as Maestro Celestino and later Maestro Lucas Padua * Leon Monroy, hired by Rizal’s father, taught him his first lessons in Latin * Rizal left Calamba for Binan on June 1870. He was accompanied by Paciano. * Jose challenged a bully named Pedro for making fun of him during class. He defeated the bigger boy and became popular in class. * Andres Lakundanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling and he lost nearly cracking his head on the sidewalk. * He met an old painter named Juancho who gave him free lessons in drawing and painting. * In December 1871 Jose received a letter from his sister Saturnina informing him of the arrival of the steamer Talim which would take him from Binan to Calamba. * Arturo Camps, a friend of his father took care of him while on the steamer. * Dona Teodora was arrested on malicious charge that she aided her brother, Jose Alberto, in trying to poison Alberto’s wife. She was sent to the provincial jail in Santa Cruz, capital of Laguna. * On January 20, 1872 the Cavite mutiny flared up, followed by the execution of Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora on February 17th.
* Escuela Pia – first name of Ateneo Municipal that then became Ateneo de Manila * June 10, 1872 – Jose went to Manila accompanied by Paciano to take entrance examinations at the San Juan de Letran * His father changed his mind and decided to send Rizal to Ateneo instead * Father Magin Ferrando who was the school registrar refused to admit Rizal for two reasons * He was late for registration
* He was sickly and undersized for his age
* Through the intercession of Manuel Xerez Burgos, nephew of Father Burgos, he was reluctantly admitted to Ateneo. * Rizal was the first in the family to adopt the surname “Rizal” because the family name “Mercado” is already under suspicion of the Spanish authorities. * Students in Ateneo were divided into two groups:
* Roman Empire consisting of the internos (boarders)
* Carthaginian Empire composed of the externos (non-boarders) * Emperor – best student in each empire
* Tribune – second best student
* Decurion – third best
* Centurion- fourth best
* Standard-bearer – fifth best
* June 1872 – Rizal first heard Mass at the college chapel * Fr. Jose Bech – Rizal’s firs professor in Ateneo
* Rizal was an externo, therefore assigned to the Carthaginian Empire in which he became emperor. * Rizal took private lessons in Santa Isabel College to improve his Spanish * Rizal made a prophecy that his mother will be released from prison after three months when he interpreted his mother’s dream * The first favorite novel of Rizal was The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas * On his third year at Ateneo, he only got one medal – in Latin. * On June 14, 1875 he became an internee in the Ateneo.
* Fr. Francisco Sanchez, a great educator and scholar who inspired Rizal to study harder and write poetry. * Rizal graduated at the head of his class.
* March 23, 1877 – commencement day, on which Rizal received the degree of Bachelor of Arts with highest honors. * He was an active member, later secretary, of a religious society, the Marian Congregation. * Rizal was also a member of the Academy of Spanish Literature and the Academy of Natural Sciences. * He studied painting under the famous Spanish painter, Augustin Saez and sculpture under Romualdo de Jesus, noted Filipino sculptor. * Mi Primera Inspiracion (My First Inspiration) – the first poem Rizal made in Ateneo, dedicated to his mother on her birthday, expressing his filial affection in sonorous verses. * The Intimate Alliance Between Religion and Good Education – Rizal showed the importance of religion in education. To him, education without God is not true education. * Al Nino Jesus (To the Child Jesus) – one of the poems Rizal wrote to express devotion to Catholic faith * A la Virgen Maria (To the Virgin Mary) – his ode to the virgin mary * Segunda Katigbak – a pretty fourteen-year old Batanguena from Lipa. Rizal’s first love. * Segunda was already engaged to be married to her townmate, Manuel Luz.
* April 1877, Rizal matriculated in the University of Sto. Tomas taking Philosophy and Letters. He enrolled in this course for two reasons: * His father liked it
* He was still uncertain as to what career to follow
* He studied cosmology, metaphysics, theodicy, and history of philosophy * During the following school term (1878-79) that Rizal took up medicine. The reasons why he took up medicine were * He wanted to be a physician so that he might cure his mother’s failing eyesight. * The father rector of the Ateneo recommended medicine. * Rizal also studied in Ateneo. He took the vocational course in surveying leading to the title of perito agrimensor. * At the age of 17 he passed the final examination but was not given the title because he was under age * The title as surveyor was given to him on November 25, 1881. * He paid court to a young woman in Calamba. Her name was Miss L, described as “fair with seductive and attractive eyes.” * He stopped wooing the young woman because
* The sweet memory of Segunda was still in his heart
* His father objected to the match
* He courted Leonor Valenzuela, who was a tall girl and had a regal bearing. He sent her love notes written in invisible ink made of table salt and water. He stopped short of proposing marriage to Leonor/Orang. * Leonor Rivera – Rizal’s cousin, daughter of his uncle Antonio Rivera. * Between Jose and Leonor sprang a tenderly beautiful romance. They became engaged. * Rizal was attacked by a lieutenant of the Guardia Civil after passing by without a salute or a courteous “Good evening”. He was brutally slashed on the back. * A La Juventud Filipina (To The Filipino Youth, 1879) – the poem Rizal submitted to the literary contest held by Liceo Artistico-Literario. He won first prize, a silver pen, feather-shaped and decorated with a gold ribbon. * A La Juventud Filipina is an inspiring poem beseeching the Filipino youth to “rise from lethargy, to let his genius fly swifter than the wind and descend with art and science to break the chain that has long bound the poetic genius of the country” * “The Council of the Gods” (1880) – a winning allegory in prose submitted by Rizal to another literary contest opened by the Artistic-Literary Lyceum. * Junto al Pasig – a drama produced by Rizal that was staged by the Ateneans on December 8, 1880 on the occasion of the annual celebration of the Immaculate Conception, Patroness of the Ateneo. * A Filipinas – a sonnet, urged all Filipino artists to glorify the Philippines * Abd-el-Azis y Mahoma (1879) – a poem written by Rizal, declaimed by Manuel Fernandez on the night of December 8, 1879 * Al M.R.P. Pablo Ramon, Rector del Ateneo, en Sus Dias (1881) – a poem he wrote to Father Pablo Ramon, the Ateneo Rector to express his affection for he had been so kind and helpful to him. * Rizal participated in school brawls. His three close friends called themselves “The Three Musketeers” and chose him as Treville, their chief. * He was also the chief of a secret student organization called Companerismo, organized in 1880. * Galicano Apacible was the secretary of Companerismo and the members called themselves “Companions of Jehu”. * Rizal was unhappy at UST because
* The Dominican professors were hostile to him
* The Filipino students were racially discriminated
* The method of instruction was obsolete and recessive * Because of the unfriendly attitude of his professors, Rizal failed to win high scholastic honors. * After finishing the fourth year of his medical course, Rizal decided to study in Spain. * His uncle Antonio Rivera, Paciano and Saturnina encouraged him to go abroad.
* Rizal’s departure to Spain was kept secret in order to avoid detection by the colonial officials and the friars. Even his own parents did not know he was leaving. * Paciano gave him 700 pesos and Saturnina gave him a diamond ring. * To maintain his studies and sojourn abroad he needed a monthly allowance of 35 pesos. * Rizal used a passport obtained by a cousin named “Jose Mercado”. * A cryptic telegram by Manuel T. Hidalgo from Manila arrived, announcing that the Spanish steamer Salvadora was scheduled to sail to Singapore. * May 1, 1882 he left Calamba by carromata to Manila after 10 hours of travel. * He had a tearful meeting with Leonor, this proved to be their last meeting. * May 3, 1882 – embarkation date – he heard mass at Santo Domingo Church. * He was the only Filipino on board.
* After 5 days, Rizal arrived at Singapore.
* Rizal stayed at Hotel de Paz during two days of his stop-over in Singapore. * In Singapore, Rizal boarded Djemnah, a French steame which was sailing to Europe. * A week after leaving Singapore, the steamer reached Point de Galle “sad and sleepy”. * May 18, 1882 voyage resumed and docked at Colombo Ceylon. * From Colombo the steamer crossed the Indian Ocean to Guardafui in Africa. * May 28, 1882 he saw for the first time the coast of Africa which he called “inhospitable but famous land” * June 2, 1882 he arrived at the city of Suez, the Red Sea terminal of the Suez Canal. * It took Djemnah five days to traverse the Suez Canal.
* On June 11, 1882 he arrived at Naples.
* On the night of June 12, 1882, the steamer docked at the French harbor of Marseilles. * At Marseilles, Rizal took the train for the last lap of his trip to Spain. He stopped at the frontier town of Fort-Buo. * Rizal continued his trip to Barcelona after a passport inspection at Port-Buo. * Rizal’s first impression of Barcelona was “ugly, with dirty little inns and inhospitable residents”. * The Filipinos in Barcelona, some of whom were his schoolmates in the Ateneo, welcomed Rizal and gave him a party at their favorite café in Plaza de Cataluña. * Amor Patrio – a nationalistic essay Rizal wrote, his first article written on Spain’s soil. * He sent this article to Basilio Teodoro in Manila who was a member of the editorial staff of the Diariong Tagalog. * Amor Patrio under his pen name Laong Laan appeared in print in Diariong Tagalong on August 20, 1882. * This was translated to Tagalog by M. H. Del Pilar.
* Rizal left Barcelona in the Fall of 1882 and established himself in Madrid, the capital of Spain after his brother Paciano advised him to finish the medical course there. * November 3, 1882 – Rizal enrolled in the Universidad Central de Madrid (Central University of Madrid) in two courses – Medicine and Philosophy and Letters. * On August 22, 1883 he wrote a lovely poem titled “A la Señorita C.O. y R.” for Consuelo Ortega y Rue, daughter of Don Pablo Ortega y Rue. Consuelo loved Rizal * Rizal did not allow the romance to go on for two reasons: * He was still engaged to Leonor Rivera and he would not want to be unfaithful to her * Eduardo de Lete, his friend, was deeply in love with Consuelo, and he did not want to break their friendship just for a wisp of a girl. * Shortly after he arrived in Madrid, Rizal joined Circulo Hispano-Filipino (Hispano-Philippine Circle) a society of Spaniards and Filipinos. * He wrote a poem Me Piden Versos (They Asked Me For Verses) upon the request of the society. In this sad poem he poured out the cry of his agonizing heart. * Rizal was impressed by the way Spanish Masons loudly and freely attacked the government and the Chrurch. * In 1883 he joined the Masonic Lodge Acacia in Madrid. His Masonic name was Dimasalang. * 2 reasons why he became a mason:
* The bad friars in the Philippines, by their abuses unworthy of their priestly habit or calling, drove Rizal to desperation and to masonry. * He needed the help of the masons to fight the bad friars in the Philippines. * June 25, 1884 – Rizal won a prize in Greek on an empty stomach because he had not eaten since the night before due to lack of funds. * At the National Exposition of Fine Arts in Madrid in 1884, Juan Luna’s Spoliarium won first prize and Felix R. Hidalgo’s “Christian Virgins Exposed to the Populace” was awarded second prize. * Rizal was awarded the degree of Licentiate in Medicine by the Universidad Central de Madrid on June 21, 1884. * The next year he passed all subjects leading to the degree of Doctor of Medicine. * He was awarded the degree of Licentiate in Philosophy and Letters by the Universidad Central de Madrid on June 19, 1885 with the rating of excellent.
* Rizal decided to go to Paris after terminating his studies at Universidad Central de Madrid in order to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology. * He stopped by Barcelona to visit Maximo Viola, a medical student and a member of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan. * He befriended Señor Eusebio Corominas, editor of the newspaper La Publicidad * He made a crayon sketch of Don Miguel Morayta, owner of La publicidad and a statesman * In October 1885 Rizal was living in Paris where he sojourned for about four months. * He worked as an assistant to Dr. Louis de Weckert (1852-1906) leading French ophthalmologist. * In Juan Luna’s canvas “The Death of Cleopatra” Rizal posed as an Egyptian priest. * In “The Blood Compact” he posed as Sikatuna with Dr. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera taking the role of Legazpi. * Rizal learned solfeggio, the piano, and voice culture in one month and a half. However he confessed that he could not sing well. * He composed three musical pieces
* The song entitled ‘Leonor’ which he composed before his departure for Spain * “El Canto del Prisionero” a danza which he composed during his exile in Dapitan * “Alin Mang Lahi” a patriotic hymn
* On February 8, 1886 he arrived in Heidelberg
* For a short time he lived in a boarding house with some German law students * Later Rizal lived with a Lutheran minister, Pastor Karl Ullmer. * Rizal worked in the clinic of Dr. Javier Galezowsky, famous Polish ophthalmologist. * He also studied under Dr. Otto Becker, great German authority on ophthalmology. * “To The Flowers of Heidelberg” a poem he wrote on April 22, 1866 for the blooming flowers of Heidelberg that reminded him of home. * On July 21, 1886 Rizal wrote his first letter to Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, Director of the Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria. * He sent Blumentritt a book entitled Arithmetica (Arithmetic), published in two languages, Spanish and Tagalog, by UST press in 1868. The author was Rufino Baltazar Hernandez, a native of Santa Cruz, Laguna. * August 6, 1886 – fifth centenary of University of Heidelberg * August 8, 1886 – Rizal left Heidelberg
* August 14, 1886 – he arrived in Leipzig where he befriended Professor Friedrich Ratzel, a famous German historian * In this German city he translated Schiller’s William Tell from German to Tagalog . Later he also translated Hans Andersen’s Fairy Tales to Tagalog. * On October 29, 1886 he left Leipzig for Dresden where he met Dr. Adolph B. Meyer, Director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum * He worked for the clinic of Dr. R. Schulzer, famous German ophthalmologist. * Rizal lived in in Germany for five reasons:
* To gain further knowledge of ophthalmology
* To further his studies of sciences and languages
* To observe the conditions of the German nation
* To associate with famous German scientists and scholars * To finish his novel, Noli Me Tangere
* He took private lessons of Madame Lucie Gerdolle to master French. * The German woman is serious, diligent, educated and friendly. She is not gossipy, frivolous, and quarrelsome like the Spanish women. * The winter of 1886 in Berlin was his darkest winter. He lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba and he was flat broke. * His health broke down due to lack of proper nourishment
* He finished Noli Me Tangere on February 21, 1887.
* January 2, 1884 he proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines by a group of Filipinos * Toward the end of 1884, Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and finished about one-half of it * December 1886, he almost through the manuscript into the fire because he lost hope of having it published because he was utterly penniless. * Dr. Maximo Viola the man who saved Noli Me Tangere, he lent Rizal money to pay for the publication of the novel. * The first edition of the Noli was printed in Berlin on 1887. The cost of printing was 300 pesos for 2000 copies. * March 29, 1887 – is a significant date for it was the date when the Noli Me Tangere came off the press. * The title Noli Me Tangere is a latin phrase which means “Touch me not”. It was taken by the gospel of St. John 20:13-17. * Rizal dedicated the novel to the Philippines. “To my country” * Noli Me Tangere contains 63 chapters and an epilogue
* Capitan Tiago (Santiago de los Santos)
* Crisostomo Ibarra – a young and rich Filipino, the only son of Don Rafael Ibarra, friend of Capitan Tiago * Maria Clara – fiancé of Crisostomo Ibarra
* Padre Damaso – a Franciscan friar who had been parish priest of San Diego (Calamba) * Padre Sibyla – a young Dominican parish priest of Binondo * Señor Guevara – an elderly and kind lieutenant of the Guardia Civil * Don Tiburcio de Espadaña – bogus Spanish Physician
* Doña Victorina – wife of Don Tiburcio
* Padre Salvi – Franciscan parish priest of San Diego
* Tasio the Sage – whose ideas were too advanced for his times so that the people who could not understand him called him “Tasio the lunatic” * Sisa – was formerly a rich girl but became poor because he married a gambler and a wastrel at that. * Basilio and Crispin – Sisa’s sons.
* Crispin – the younger brother who died of torture after being accused of stealing the money of a priest * Elias – a boatman whom Ibarra saved from a crocodile. * Maria Clara was Leonor Rivera.
* Ibarra and Elias represented Rizal
* Tasio the Sage was his elder brother Paciano
* Padre Salvi was Padre Antonio Piernavieja, the hated Augustinian friar in Cavite who was killed during the Revolution * Capitan Tiago was Capitan Hilario Sunico of San Nicolas * Doña Victorina was Doña Agustina Medel
* Basilio and Crispin were the Crisostomo brothers of Hagonoy * Padre Damaso was typical of a domineering friar during the days of Rizal, who was arrogant, superlicious and anti-Filipino
* “Elias and Salome” – a missing chapter in Noli me Tangere that Rizal removed from the printed novel to shorten the manuscript because of lack of funds.
* May 11, 1887 – Rizal and Viola left Berlin by train
* Rizal and Viola tarried for some time in Dresden where they visited Dr. Adolph Meyer. * May 13, 1887 1:30pm – Rizal met Blumentritt for the first time at the railroad station of Leitmeritz, Bohemia
* Rizal was determined return to the Philippines for the following reasons * To operate his mother’s eyes
* To serve his people who had long been oppressed by Spanish tyrants * To find out for himself how the Noli and his other writings were affecting Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines * To find out why Leonor Rivera had remained silent
* June 29, 1887 – Rizal wrote to his father announcing his homecoming * July 3, 1887 he boarded the steamer Djemnah, the same steamer which brought him to Europe 5 years ago. * On July 30 he transferred to another steamer Hayfong, which was Manila-bound * August 6 – he arrived in Manila
* Governor General Terrero read the Noli and found nothing wrong with it * Faculty members of UST stated that the Noli was “heretical, impious, and scandalous in the religious order and anti-patriotic, subversive of public order, injurious to the government of Spain and its function in the Philippine Islands in the political order” * The novel was sent to the Permanent Commission of Censorship which was composed of priests and laymen * Fr. Salvador Font, drafted the report of this commission recommended “that the importation, reproduction and circulation of the pernicious book in the islands be absolutely prohibited” for they found the novel to contain subversive ideas against the Church and Spain. * The banning of the Noli only served to make it popular * What the hated Spanish masters did not like, the oppressed masses like. * Fr. Jose Rodriguez published a pamphlet entitled Caiingat Cayo (Beware) which attacked the Noli and warned the readers that if they read it “they commit mortal sins inasmuch as the said book is full of heresy” * Marcelo H. del Pilar writing under the pen name Dolores Manapat published a pamphlet entitled Caiigat Cayo (Be as slippery as an eel) as an answer to Fr. Rodriguez’ Caiingat Cayo. * Rev. Vicente Garcia, writing under the pen name Justo Desiderio Magalang, wrote a defense of the Noli which was published in Singapore * Rizal cannot be an “ignorant man”, as Fr. Rodriguez alleged, because he was a graduate of Spanish universities and was a recipient of scholastic honors. * Rizal does not attack the Church and Spain, as Fr. Rodriguez claimed, because what Rizal attacked in the Noli were bad Spanish officials and not Spain, and the bad and corrupt friars and not the Church. * Father Rodriguez said that those who read the Noli commit a mortal sin: since he (Rodriguez) had read the novel, therefore he also commits a mortal sin. * Governor-General Terrero assigned a bodyguard for Rizal, he was Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade * Friars exerted pressure on Malacanan Palace to eliminate Rizal, one day, Gov. Terrero summoned Rizal and advised him to leave the Philippines for his own good. * He was compelled to leave Calamba for two reasons:
* His presence in Calamba was jeopardizing the safety and happiness of his family and friends * He could better fight his enemies and serve his country’s cause with greater efficacy by writing in foreign countries. * Himno Al Trabajo (Hymn to Labor) – poem Rizal wrote for his friend from Lipa in commemoration of the town’s elevation to a villa. He wrote it as a dedication to the industrious folks of Lipa.
* February 3, 1888 – Rizal left Manila for Hong Kong
* In Hong Kong, Rizal stayed at Victoria Hotel
* Jose Sainz de Varanda – shadowed Rizal’s movement in Hong Kong * February 18, 1888 – Rizal, accompanied by Jose Maria Basa, boarded the ferry steamer Kiu-Kiang for Macao. * In Macao, Rizal stayed at the home of Don Juan Francisco Lecaros, last Filipino delegate to the Spanish Cortes * February 21, 1888 – Rizal and Basa returned to Hong Kong, on board the steamer Kiu-Kiang * Rizal studied Chinese life, language, drama and customs * February 22, 1888 – Rizal left Hong Kong on board the Oceanic, an American steamer. His destination was Japan
* February 28, 1888 – Rizal arrived in Yokohama
* He registered at Grand Hotel.
* The next day he proceeded to Tokyo and registered at Tokyo Hotel, where he stayed from March 2 to 7. * He was visited at his hotel by Juan Perez Caballero, secretary of the Spanish Legation. He was invited to live at the Spanish Legation. * He accepted the invitation for two reasons
* He could economize his living expenses by staying at the legation * He had nothing to hid from the prying eyes of the Spanish authorities * March 7, 1888 – Rizal checked out of Tokyo Hotel and lived at the Spanish Legation. * He studied Japanese, the Japanese drama, arts, music, and judo. * Rizal’s impressions of Japan
* The beauties of the country – its flowers, mountains, streams, and scenic panoramas * The cleanliness, politeness and industry of the Japanese people * The picturesque dress and simple charm of the Japanese women * There were very few thieves in Japan so that the houses remained open day and night, and in the hotel room one can safely leave money on the table. * Beggars were rarely seen in the city streets, unlike in Manila and other cities * O-sei-san / Seiko Usui – a pretty girl Rizal met at a Japanese shop. Daughter of the store owner who learned English and French from her private tutors * Her beauty and affection almost tempted Rizal to settle down in Japan. * April 13, 1888 – Rizal boarded the Belgic, an English steamer at Yokohama bound for the United States. * Tetcho Suehiro – a Japanese newspaperman who had been jailed twice for writing articles against the government. * On the Belgic he met Mrs. Emma Jackson, a Filipno woman married to an Englishman.
* April 28, 1888 – Rizal first saw America
* The steamer docked at San Francisco
* The ship was placed under quarantine because the American authorities believed that it came from the Far East where a cholera epidemic where raging * After a week of quarantine, the first-class passengers including Rizal were permitted to land * Rizal registered at the Palace Hotel which was then considered a first-class hotel in the city * Leland Stanford – a millionaire US senator representing California that was mentioned in Rizal’s diary * Rizal stayed in San Francisco from May 4 to 6 1888
* May 6, 1888 – Rizal left San Francisco for Oakland
* May 13, Rizal reached New York, thus ending his trip across the American continent * May 16, 1888 – he left New York for Liverpool on board The City of Rome, “the second largest ship in the world” at that time * Rizal’s impressions of America
* The material prograss of the country as shown in the great cities, huge farms, flourishing industries and busy factories * The drive and energy of the American people
* The natural beauties of the land
* The high standard of living
* The opportunities for better life offered to poor immigrants * One bad impression Rizal had of America was the lack of racial equality * “America is the land par excellence of freedom but only for the whites”