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Rizal

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Topics: Philippines
Rizal’s Education- Early Schooling (Calamba & Biñan) * The Hero’s First Teacher Doña Teodora was Jose’s first non-formal teacher * On her lap, Jose learned prayers and the alphabet at the age of three * Private Tutors of Rizal * Maestro Celestino was Jose’s first private tutor. * Maestro Lucas Padua was the second private tutor. * Maestro Leon Monroy became the hero’s tutor in Spanish and Latin. He was a classmate of Don Francisco.
The Uncles of Rizal * Uncle Jose Alberto – gave wise direction in the studies of Jose. * Uncle Gregorio – instilled into the mind of Jose the Jose Alberto love for education. * “Work hard and perform every task very carefully; learn to be swift as well as thorough; be independent in thinking; and make visual pictures of everything.” – Uncle Gregorio * Uncle Manuel Alberto – seeing Jose was frail in nature, concerned himself with the physical development of his nephew. * He also taught Jose the love for open air and admiration for the beauty of nature.
Jose Goes to Biñan * Don Leon died five months later and Jose was sent to a private school in Biñan. * June 1869 – Jose goes to Biñan with Paciano. * Carromata – the mode of transportation * Aunt’s house – where Jose lodged
First Day in School * Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz – formal teacher. * Rizal described Maestro Justiniano as tall, thin, long- necked, sharp-nosed, with a body slightly bent forward. * The school was in Maestro Justiniano’s house First School Brawl * Pedro –the bully (the teacher’s son) – wrestling * Andres Salandanan – arm wrestling Painting Lessons in Biñan * Old Juancho – freely gave Jose painting lessons. * Jose Rizal and his classmate Jose Guevarra became apprentices of Old Juancho
Daily Life in Biñan: Jose’s daily routine * Hears mass at 4 a.m. or studies lesson before going to mass. * Goes to orchard to look for mabolo to eat. * Breakfast. Goes to class at 10 a.m. * Lunch break * Goes back to school at 2 p.m. * Goes home at 5 p.m. * Prays with cousins. * Studies lessons, then draws a little. * Eat supper. * Pray again. * Play in the street if moon is bright. * Sleeps Best Student in School * Jose surpassed his classmates in Spanish, Latin and other subjects. * His older classmates were jealous and squealed to the teacher whenever he had fights. * Jose usually received five or six blows while laid out on a bench
End of Biñan Schooling * December 17, 1870 – Jose left Biñan. * Talim – the steamer that Jose rode. * Arturo Camps – a Frenchman and a friend of Don Francisco, he took care of Jose during the trip.
Injustice to the Hero’s Mother * n 1872, Doña Teodora was arrested on a malicious charge that she aided his brother Jose Alberto in trying to poison his wife. * Jose Alberto planned to divorce his wife because of her infidelity. * Jose Alberto’s wife connived with the Spanish lieutenant of the Guardia Civil and filed a case against Rizal’s mother. * Antonio Vivencio del Rosario – gobernadorcillo of Calamba, helped the lieutenant arrest Doña Teodora * 50 kilometers – Doña Teodora was made to walk from Calamba to the provincial prison in Santa Cruz. * Don Francisco de Marcaida & Don Manuel Mazano – most famous lawyers of Manila, defended Doña Teodora in court. * After 2 ½ years – the Royal Audiencia acquitted Doña Teodora. * 50 kilometers – Doña Teodora was made to walk from Calamba to the provincial prison in Santa Cruz. * Don Francisco de Marcaida & Don Manuel Mazano – most famous lawyers of Manila, defended Doña Teodora in court. * After 2 ½ years – the Royal Audiencia acquitted Doña Teodora. * Ateneo * June 10, 1872, Jose accompanied by Paciano went to Manila and took the entrance examination at the College of San Juan de Letran managed by the Dominicans. * Returned to Calamba on June 24 for the town fiesta in honor of St. John the Baptist.Paciano following the instruction of Don Francisco enrolled Jose in Ateneo using Rizal as Jose’s surname to avoid suspicion by the Dominican’s, Mercado being used by Paciano and marked by the friars as liberal having been a desciple of Padre Burgos. * Fr. MaginFerrando (registrar) refused to admit Jose for being late, sickly and undersized but with the help of Manuel Xerez Burgos nephew of Padre Burgos Rizal was finally admitted in Ateneo. * Boarded in Dona Titay’s a spinster who owed the Mercado’s 300 pesos.Rizal and bosom friend Pastor Millena daily hopped across the Pasig river on the Puente de Barcas. * SUBJECTS: Christian Doctrine, Spanish, Latin, Greek and French; World Geography and History, History of Spain and the Phil. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, mineralogy, chemistry, physics and botany and zoology, Poetry rhetoric and philo. * First day of class in Ateneo in June 1872, first he heard mass. * First Teacher – Father Jose Bech
JESUIT SYSTEM OF EDUCATION * It trained the character of the student by rigid discipline and religious instructions -Students were divided into two groups: * Roman Empire- consisting of internos (boarders); red banner * Carthaginian Empire- composed of the externos (non-boarders); blue banner * Emperor- the best student in each “empire” * Tribune- the second best * Decurion- the third best * Centurion-the fourth best * Stand-bearer- the fifth best * The Ateneo students in Rizal’s time wore a uniform which consisted of “hemp-fabric trousers” and “striped cotton coat” The coat material was called rayadillo.
FIRST YEAR IN ATENEO (1872-1873) * Father Jose Bech- Rizal’s first professor in Ateneo whom he described as a “tall thin man, with a body slightly bent forward, a harried walk, an ascetic face, severe and inspired, small deep-sunken eyes, a sharp nose that was almost Greek, and thin lips forming an arc whose ends fell toward the chin • * A Religious picture- Rizal’s first prize for being the brightest pupil in the whole class • To improve his Spanish, Rizal took private lessons in Santa Isabel College during the noon recesses. He paid three pesos for those extra Spanish lessons. * At the end of the school year in March, 1873, Rizal returned to Calamba for summer vacation • * When the summer vacation ended, Rizal returned to Manila for his second year term in Ateneo. This time he boarded inside Intramuros at No. 6 Magallanes Street. His landlady was an old widow named Doña Pepay
SECOND YEAR IN ATENEO (1873-1874) * At the end of the school year, Rizal received excellent grades in all subjects and a gold medal • * The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas- the first favorite novel of Rizal which made a deep impression on him • * Universal History by Cesar Cantu- Rizal persuaded his father to buy him this set of historical work that was a great aid in his studies • * Dr. Feodor Jagor- a German scientist-traveler who visited the Philippines in 1859-1860 who wrote Travels in the Philippines -Rizal was impressed in this book because of * (1) Jagor’s keen observations of the defects of Spanish colonization * (2) his prophecy that someday Spain would lose the Philippines and that America would come to succeed her as colonizer
THIRD YEAR IN ATENEO (1874-1875) * Rizal grades remained excellent in all subjects but he won only one medal—in Latin * At the end of the school year (March 1875), Rizal returned to Calamba for the summer vacation. He himself was not impressed by his scholastic work
FOURTH YEAR IN ATENEO • * June 16, 1875- Rizal became an interno in the Ateneo • * Padre Francisco de Paula Sanchez- a great educator and scholar, one of Rizal’s professors who inspired him to study harder and to write poetry . * Rizal described this Jesuiot professor as “model of uprightness, earnestness, and love for the advancement of his pupils” • * Rizal topped all his classmates in all subjects and won five medals at the end of the school term
AST YEAR IN ATENEO (1876-1877)- * Rizal’s studies continued to fare well. As a matter-of-fact, he excelled in all subjects. * The most brilliant Atenean of his time, he was truly “the pride of the Jesuits” • * March 23, 1877- Commencement Day, Rizal, who was 16 years old, received from his Alma Mater, Ateneo Municipal, the degree of Bachelor of Arts, with highest honors • * Marian Congregation- a religious society wherein Rizal was an active member and later became the secretary 5 * Rizal cultivated his literary talent under the guidance of Father Sanchez • * Father Jose Vilaclara- advised Rizal to stop communing with the Muse and pay more attention to more practical studies • * Rizal studied painting under the famous Spanish painter, Agustin Saez, and sculpture under Romualdo de Jesus, noted Filipino sculptor • * Rizal carved an image of the Virgin Mary on a piece of batikuling (Philippine hardwood) with his pocket- knife • * Father Lleonart- impressed by Rizal’s sculptural talent, requested him to carve for him an image of Sacred Heart of Jesus
POEMS WRITTEN IN ATENEO * It was Doña Teodora who was first discovered the poetic genius of her son, and it was also she who first encouraged himto write poems. However it was Father Sanchez who inspired Rizal to make full use of his God-given gift in poetry • * Mi Primera Inspiracion (My First Inspiration), 1874- the first poem Rizal probably wrote during his days in Ateneo which was dedicated to his mother on her birthday; * 1. Felicitacion (Felicitationi) * 2. El Embarque: Himno a la Flota de Magallanes (The Departure: Hymn to Magellan’s Fleet) * 3. Y Es Espanol; Elcano, el Primero en dar la Vuelta al Mundo (And He is Spanish: Elcano, the First to Circumnavigate the World) * 4. El Combate: Urbiztondo, Terror de Jolo (The Battle: Urbiztondo, Terror of Jolo) and a lot more…
SCHOLASTIC RECORDS OF
RIZAL AT UST
Preparatory Course of Medicine(1878-1879) Advanced Physics.....................................................Aprovechado Advanced Chemistry................................................ Sobresaliente Advanced Natural History....................................... Aprovechado
First Year of Medicine(1878-1879) General Anatomy and Histology I............................Bueno Descriptive Anatomy I..............................................Bueno Advanced Natural History....................................... Sobresaliente * Only one student merited Sobresaliente. * Rizal is in the eight place out of 18 who successfully passed the course. * 24 students were enrolled in the first year of medicine. Second Year of Medicine(1879-1880) General Anatomy and Histology II..........................Bueno Descriptive Anatomy II............................................Bueno Exercises of Dissection............................................ Bueno Physiology, Private and Public Hygiene.................. Bueno * For a student of Dr. Jose Franco, to have passed must have been a relief and an achievement. * Only eleven students survived the two years of academic selection. Two of them were Spaniards and nine were Filipinos. Third Year of Medicine(1880-1881) General Pathology, its Clinic and Pathologic Histology..........................................................Aprobado Therapeutics, Medical Matter and Art of Prescribing.......................................................Sobresaliente Surgical Anatomy, Operations, External Medical Applications and Bandages..............................Bueno * Only two students fared better than Rizal, namely, Jose Luna Novicio and Cornelio Mapa. Fourth Year of Medicine(1881-1882) Medical Pathology....................................................Notable Surgical Pathology....................................................Notable Obstetrics, Sicknesses of Women and Children.......Notable Siphilography............................................................Notable * The Second among 7 students who successfully passed the course. FACULTY OF MEDICINE
School Year 1881 – 1882
Students examined in the Fourth Year 1. Cornelio Mapa y Belmonte Sobresaliente 2. JOSE RIZAL M. Y ALONSO Notable 3. Vivencio Ramos y Afable Notable 4. Francisco del Rosario y Narciso Bueno 5. Jose Luna y Novicio Bueno 6. Jose Resurrecion y Padilla Aprobado 7. Marciano Barrera y Aquino Suspenso (Sgd.) Lic. Quintin Meynet Dr. Jose de Antelo
The undersigned Examiner-Secretary certifies that the persons appearing in the preceding report have obtained the marks expressed after their names. Manila, March 13, 1882 (Sgd.) Mariano Cuadrado
Was Rizal “far below his standards” at UST? * Elementary or high school standards should not be placed against College or University standards. * None of his classmates ever got near to keeping a straight record of Sobresaliente. * Rizal’s grades in UST must be compared not with his grades in high school but with those of his classmates in Medicine.
If Rizal was indeed below his usual grades, the following points must be considered: * Rizal was was not much attracted to Medicine. * When Rizal transferred to Spain and continued to study at the University of Madrid, he was “Excellent” in humanistic studies (literature, languages, history) but he fared worse than at the UST in Medicine. * He had the “distractions of the youth” as he gained more freedom in life.
Why did Rizal leave the University?
Asuncion Lopez Bantug (grand niece of Rizal, direct descendant of Narcissa) – “Lolo Jose” -to learn more abroad -Dominicans had nothing to do with it * Fr. Juan Vila, Rizal’s professor of Metaphysics in the Preparatory Course of Theology and Law; Fr. Evaristo F. Arias, theologian, poet and friend of Rizal (Dominican priests)
-when Rizal was in his death cell (Dec 29) he was visited by the Dominican fathers, on of whom was Fr. Arias. They conversed with Rizal for some time
-”If I had followed the advice of Fr. Vila not to go to Europe until I had finished my career of Medicine, probably, I would not find myself in the sorry situation in which I am now.”
Travels of Rizal
Rizal's First Trip Abroad * 3 May 1882
Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista. * 15 June 1882
He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train.
Rizal in Barcelona, Spain * 20 August 1882
His article "Amor Patrio" was published in the Diarong Tagalog, a Manila newspaper edited by Basilio Teodoro. This was the First article he wrote abroad.
Rizal in Madrid, Spain * 2 September 1882
Rizal matriculated at the Universidad Central de Madrid. He took the following subjects: medical clinic, surgical clinic, legal medicine and obstetrical clinic. * 4 October 1882
Asked to deliver a poem by the members of Circulo Hispano-Filipino, there together in the effort to save the association from disintegration, Rizal recited "Me piden versus." The meeting was held at the house of Pablo Ortega y Rey. * 2 November 1882
He wrote the article "Revista de Madrid" which was in intended for publication in the Diarong Tagalog in Manila, but was not published because the newspaper stops its circulation. * 7 November 1882
Rizal wrote an article entitled "Las Dudas". The article was signed Laong - Laan.
Rizal in Paris, France * 18 June 1883
With Felipe Zamora and Cunanan, He visited the Leannec Hospital to observe how Dr, Nicaise treated his patients. He was stunned to see the advanced facilities in the accommodation in the said hospital. * 19 June 1883
He again visited Dr. Nicaise who showed the technique of operation. Later he went to see dupytren Museum. * 20 June 1883
Rizal visited the Lariboisiere Hospital where Felix Pardo de Tavera was an extern. Here he observe the examination of the different diseases of women.
Rizal Back in Madrid * 28 September 1883
He enrolled at the central Universidad de Madrid for the second course in medicine. * October 1883
He came to know of the imprisonment, by order of Sr. Vicente Barrantes, of the 14 rich innocent persons in Manila. The Prisoners who knew nothing is the cause of their detention and who became sick later, were kept in a humid prison cell. Rizal was indignant of his inhuman act. * 2 January 1884
Rizal proposed to the member of the Circulo assembled in the house of the Pateros, the publication of a book by association. This idea became the embryo of this first novel Noli Me Tangere . * 21 June 1884
He finished the degree of Licentiate in Medicine with the grade of aprobado from the Central Universidad de Madrid. * 25 June 1884
Rizal won first prize in Greek contest, after which he delivered a speech in honor of the two Filipino painters, Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo. The occasion commemorated the triumph of the two, especially Luna who won the first prize for his Spoliarium during the National Exposition of Fine Arts held in Madrid that year. * 1 July 1884
Rizal explained the term "Filibusterismo" in the newspaper of Madrid El Progreso, calling the attention of the Spanish authorities over the case of future of the Filipinos. He asked for freedom of the press and the right of representation of the Spanish Cortes. * 20 November 1884
Rizal witnessed the tumultuous scene in the Central Universidad de Madrid where the students and professors staged a strike against excommunication imposed by the bishop on the lecture proclaiming the freedom of science and of the teacher.
Rizal in Heidelberg, Germany * 22 April 1886
While in Heidelberg experiencing the feeling of nostalgia for his parents and his country, Rizal wrote the poem "A Las Flores de Heidelberg.“
Rizal in Berlin, Germany * 21 March 1887
Copies of his novel came off the press. He sent one copy to Prof. Blumentritt. In a letter of his Austrian friend, he say it was the first impartial and daring book to be written on the life of the Tagalogs. He opined that the Spanish authorities and the friar would attack the book.
Rizal in Manila * 5 August 1887
At 9:00 o’clock in the evening, Rizal arrived at Manila after five years of study and patriotic labors in Europe. * 18 August 1887
In a letter, Archbishop P. Payo instructed Fr. Gregorio Echevarria, Rector of the University of Sto. Thomas, that an information about the novel Noli Me Tangere be issued by a Commission composed of University professors Fr. Matias Gomez, Fr. Norberto del Prado and Fr. Evaristo Fernandez Arias. * 30 August 1887
He left Calamba for Manila to see Governor-General on the issue of the Noli Me Tangere which caused torment among the friars in the Philippines. Governor-General Terrero asked him for a copy and Rizal, after a few days looking for copy, handed him a worn out one. – On the same date, the Calustro Universitario formed by the Rector of Santo Thomas upon the order of the Archbishop of Manila, issued an order prohibiting the possession and reading of the Noli Me Tangere. * September 1887
Rizal decided not to leave his family within this year. His sister Olimpia died of hemorrhage while giving birth. His father did not permit him to go out alone and eat in the house of his relatives. * 19 October 1887
Rizal made a pencil drawing of a sailboat sailing on Laguna de Bay, which he saw with Jose Taviel de Andrade, Lieutenant of the Civil Guards assigned by the Governor-General Terrero to protect him, during an excursion to Los Baños. This drawing was sent to Blumentritt. * 29 Decmber 1887
The Permanent Board Of Censure headed by Fr. Salvador Font issued a judgment absolutely prohibiting the circulation of the Noli Me Tangere in the Philppines. Upon the recommendation of the Governor-General, Father Font said: "…Aside of attacking so directly, as you have seen your Excellency, the Religion of the state, institutions and respectable persons for their official character, the book is replete of foreign teachings and doctrines; and the general synthesis of the same is to inspire among the loyal and submissive sons of Spain in these distant islands, profound,and furious hate to the mother country…" * 3 February 1888
Rizal, after staying in the Philippines for almost six months, left Manila for Hongkong, bringing with him P5,000 which he earned from his medical practice.
Rizal in Hong Kong * 19 February 1888
With Jose Maria Basa, Jose Sainz de Veranda and some Portuguese, Rizal left Hongkong for Macao on board the Kui Kiang. In Macao, they lived in the house of Juan Lecaroz. Rizal went around for observation, especially the botanical garden. * 22 February 1888
After staying in Hong Kong for almost two weeks, he left for Japan on board the Oceanic.
Some works of Rizal * Translated Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Events in the Philippine Islands) on 1890 * El Solfeo de la Defensa (La Solidaridad) * "Los agriculores Filipinos“ * "En Bosque“ * "Me Piden Versos…!“ * "Los Viajes“ * "La Verdad para Todos“ * "Verdades Neuvas" * "Differencias“ * "a La Patria“ * "Inconsecuencias“ * "Filipinas Dentro de Cien Ańos” * "Filipinas en el congreso" * "Sobre la nueva ortografia de la lengua tagala," * "Mariang Makiling,"
Rizal Back in Madrid * 23 August 1890
He reported to Juan Luna what transpired between him and Antonio Luna. They had a quarrel and they also had a duel.
Rizal Biarritz, France * 29 March 1891
He finished writing his book El Filibusterismo. He planned, however, of revising some chapters.
Rizal in Brussels, Belgium * 1 May 1891
In a letter sent to Basa, Rizal reiterated [again] his desire to be in Hong Kong, reminding the former of the amount he was borrowing for his fare. * He also informed Deodato Arellano of his plan to move from Europe to either Hongkong, Philippines or Japan, and to renounce the receiving of pension from the Propaganda.“ * 30 May 1891
Rizal set ready for printing 20 chapters of the manuscript of the El Filibusterismo. He was waiting for an amount to defray the publication expense.
Rizal in Ghent, Belgium * 9 July 1891
He was financially hard up. He did not receive for three months up to this date any pension from home. He was living in the most difficult situation, renting a small room and eating the modest food in order to economize and able to publish the Fili. He had already pawned all his jewels. * September 1890 El Fili was publish in Ghent using the donations from Rizal’s friends.
Rizal in the Philippines * 26 June 1892
Rizal arrived in the Philippines from Hongkong on board the boat Don Juan. After having been inspected by the custom men, he boarded in the Oriente Hotel where he occupied room No. 22, facing the Binondo church. His sister, Lucia, accompanied him in his return to the Philippines. In the evening, he attended the reunion held in the house of Don Ong-junco, a Chinese mestizo, who was living in the district of Tondo. Here he met many Filipinos who were later arrested and executed as a consequence of the discovery of the Katipunan. * 3 July 1892
Rizal had again an interview with Governor-General Despujol. He thanked Governor-General Despujol for lifting the order of exile for his sisters. The Governor told him to come back the following Wednesday.

In the evening, he attended a meeting at a house on Calle Ylaya to discuss the proposed Liga Filipina.
Exiled to Dapitan * 6 July 1892
Rizal held the last interview with the Governor-General. The governor-general confronted him for anti-friar bills supposedly found in the baggages of his sister Lucia. He was ordered imprisoned in Fort Santiago (from July 6-15). * 15 July 1892
At 1:00 on the morning, Rizal was shipped on board the boat S. S. Cebu to Dapitan. He was given good cabin, but well guarded. * He engaged in agriculture, fishing and business; he maintained and operated a hospital; he conducted classes- taught the pupils English and Spanish languages and the arts

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