combining or involving two or more professions, technologies, departments, or the like, as in businessor industry. 2. Anthropology- the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics,and social customs and beliefs of humankind. 3. Practitioners- a person engaged in the practice of a profession, occupation, 4. Methodologies- a set or system of methods, principles, and rules for regulating a given discipline, as in the arts orsciences. 5. Epistemologies-
a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. 6. Paradigms-
a set of forms all of which contain a particular element, especially the set of all inflected formsbased on a single stem or theme. 7. Ecological- the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms. 8. Cross-sectional research- Cross-sectional studies (also known as Cross-sectional analysis) form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at a defined time. 9. Longitudinal research- A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time -- often many decades. It is a type of observational study. .. 10. Succumbed- to give way to superior force; yield: to succumb to despair.
2. The field of criminology can be defined as hard, adventurous, risky, interesting and a well thought out job that has to have a lot of experience. Criminology is always thought as the study of criminals but it’s not just that there are a lot more details fields involved with it. Some examples could be criminology scientists who don’t work in the field as cops or detectives but they work in the lab trying to find out who did this crime, how this crime happened, finding fingerprints and other details to help the cops or detectives solve the crime. Criminology is also the study of the brain of the criminals, how they act, what types of crime’s are there and how to identify them. Criminology can happen in a courtroom, on the street, in a lab, in a lawyer’s office ETC. Sociology today is a huge part of criminology. This field can be at the same time dangerous, complicated and interesting. 3. Two examples of what criminologists do are work in the field as detectives or cops and crime scene technicians. The ones that work in the field as cops or detectives have to be trained to fight against criminal’s weapons or no weapons. They have to be well trained in negotiating with the criminal’s, thinking on the spot also to be ten steps ahead of the criminals and they have to know how to deal with certain types of criminals. In the field knowing how the crime went down also needs to be known so they could try and reenact the crime while knowing what type of weapon it is. Crime scene technicians work with law enforcement agencies to investigate crimes by evaluating the details that were left on the scene of the crime. These people look at what type of crime it was, what weapon was used or maybe no weapon, fingerprints and when the crime was done. Technicians analyze data in the lab and show findings in both written and oral reports. They are a very big piece in crimes because they usually help figure out the crime most of the time. They also help figure out what happened at the crime scene if there were no witnesses. 4. There are two different schools of thought within criminology. They are the classical school and the positivist school. The classical school of thought is philosophical not scientific. It’s motivation was that the criminal justice systems were corrupted and used torture and the death penalty without much hesitation and justification. This school thinks that people were rational beings who got pleasure and avoided pain. So the punishments to the criminals would make them suffer in greater pain than any pleasure they might have got by committing the crime. This made people think that other people would have no intention of committing a crime at all. On the other hand there was the biggest problem with this school the children and mentally ill were treated the same as any other criminal. The positivist school argued that the punishment should be given to the criminal depending on how big of a criminal he was not on the crime. This school used parts of Darwinism’s theory of evolution, medicine and biology. A gun named Cesare Lombroso made experiments and found out that most criminals share particular body parts, featuring parts of the brain and skeleton. His theory’s were rejected but later on recognized that there were other multiple causes to why criminals commit crimes. These two schools are different from each other because the classical school deals with punishments given to the criminal based on the crime and the positivist school gives punishments based on the criminal not on the crime.
5. The school of thought that agrees with my personal views is the classical school. The classical school because my personal views are that the punishment should deal with what the crime is not who did it or why they did it. Also my personal view is that it doesn’t matter if the person is mentally ill or it’s a child it goes the same for them because it’s a crime and it’s illegal whatever they do no matter the age or illness. 6. In criminological research there are two types of methods. The first one is and the most popular one the quantitative method and the qualitative method. For the quantitative method researchers investigate criminality or the crime rate. Criminality is the amount of crime committed by a particular group in a society. Crime rate is the amount of crime committed in a city, state or country. Qualitative methods use participant observation, intense interviewing, focus groups and case studies. I find more interesting the qualitative method. It is more interesting because if I need to solve a problem or an event that occurred before I need to use people for evidence because they were actually there and they witnessed it so I can interview them and ask them questions about what happened which is more realistic than using statistics for evidence. The qualitative method is more valuable because it gives you better evidence or understanding of what happened since there were actual witnesses there. 7. An approach to studying criminology is using biological roots of criminal behavior. The negative aspects of this approach are that criminality can be passed down through genes or DNA, since the brain controls behavior if there’s something wrong with the brain it can cause criminal activities. Territoriality, condemnation of adultery and acquisitiveness are three examples of behavior which may be instinctual to human beings. Some positive aspects are that even if its generically passed down some human beings are further along the evolutionary ladder their behavior might show that.