What problems did Hispanics, Native Americans and Women face in 1945 and how far had these been overcome by 1968?
Blacks weren’t the only people to face extreme discrimination, they also weren’t the only people who were being treated unfairly. Hispanics, Native Americans and Women all face some type of discrimination in the year of 1945. In this essay I will explain what types of problems they went through, how they dealt with them and if any, what solutions they came to. Women were amongst the types of people who had to deal with discrimination everyday. During the war women were given males jobs as most of the men had gone to fight in the army, this showed women new roles and opportunities. When the war ended in 1945 women would have to return to their original life, however having seen a different way of life, they wanted more of it. Women's unemployment rates were extremely high, three fifths of women that were aged over 16 were not working. The women that did have a job however, were paid on average $12,000 less than men annually. Women's lives were massively changed because of Betty Friedan, in 1963 Friedan wrote a book called “The Feminine Mystique” this book was a non-fiction book which highlighted the widespread unhappiness in the USA about how women were being treated, a quote taken from. the book read; “A girl should not expect special privileges because of her sex, but neither should she "adjust" to prejudice and discrimination” this showed that women only wanted to be equal and in no way superior to men. Other influential women such as Ti-Grace Atkinson fought for women's rights however she was much more radical – she influenced celibacy, lesbianism and female separation. Luckily, women had big powers such as president Kennedy helping them through, Kennedy set up the PCSW (Presidential Commission on the Status of Women) this commission was charged with “the responsibility for developing recommendations for overcoming discriminations in government and private employment on the basis of sex” however Kennedy didn’t want to loose support of organized labour and women who wanted to serve in a traditional home. Even though women had support,Title VII was refused by the government – this title outlawed sexual discrimination in employment. Members from PCSW set up a new group which would campaign for women’s rights called 'NOW'. NOW (the National Organisation for Women) was founded by Betty Friedan in 1966, they aimed for “a truly equal partnership with men.” NOW were extremely successful in campaigning for women's rights by 1967 many of women's problems had been resolved such as outlawing sexual discrimination in any company that worked for government – signed by Johnson. Title VII was now willing to be enforced due to the EEOC (The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission). Johnson also appointed 50 women to top government posts, this showed the public that women could do just as good a men in what was supposedly a 'male-dominated role' and therefore women were being treated equally. NOW also used the courts to their advantage, an example of this is Lorena Weeks who took the company Southern Bell to court for promoting a man even though she was clearly more qualified for the job than he was, once NOW took on this case they proved that the company Southern Bell has violated the terms of Title VII, Weeks eventually was given the job and $31,000. In 1966 NOW also struck down the Muncy act which stated women would have longer prison sentences than men. Some feminist groups were more radical than others, for example the NYRW (New York Radical Women) crowned a sheep as 'Miss World' in a beauty contest, to symbolise that women were treated like animals. Some women didn’t wear make up or wear bras as they saw them as a symbol of male domination. However, these women often did more harm than good because they caused a distraction from the key issues of equal pay and job opportunities. Some women didn’t...
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